AEA365 | A Tip-a-Day by and for Evaluators

I’m Nidhi Khattri from the CLEAR Global Hub at the World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group.  As a member of the team that got CLEAR up and running, I’ve been interested in how countries make evidence-based decisions, and the role that evaluation plays in that process.

Coming from a research-based background where I was more concerned with producing evaluations, I began reading more about how evaluations can be used systematically.  This book on how governments use evaluations to inform budget decisions was especially informative.

My understanding grew about the ecology around the production and use of evaluation that is grounded in public sector (or indeed organizational) management.  For evaluation evidence to be used, it’s not enough for the evaluation to be technically sound.  It must be timed correctly and connected closely to the different points of decision in the policy cycle – policy design/budget allocation, program design, implementation, review, and back to budget allocation (both within and across sectors and programs) – and to the fundamental questions that policymakers (and program implementers) must contend with at those specific points in the cycle.   Furthermore, the set of evaluations an organization or a government conducts or commissions must also be based on principles of effective and efficient use of resources, helping guide the choice of evaluations.

Many countries (and large organizations) have developed different institutional mechanisms and arrangements to deal with these issues.  They attempt to address the different points in the policy cycle, but they close the loop only partially.  Some focus predominantly on budget decisions.  Others are far more robust in considering and solving implementation issues.  Still others focus much more on accountability at the end.  In part it’s because of issues of coordination and capacity across the range of ministries and departments.  It’s also is due to differences in management philosophy and use of monitoring rather than evaluation.  Similarly, there are quite a few differences in governments (and organizations) making rational decisions regarding the set of evaluations, ranging from somewhat formulaic approaches to letting “…a thousand flowers bloom.”

This subject – use of evaluation as a tool for public sector management – intrigues me, and I wonder how it’ll evolve in the future with greater access to technology and multiple sources of information, collected and analyzed on an ongoing basis by non-evaluators.  Will it be tied less to decisions at specific points in time and far more to real time decision-making? Will evaluations become less “evaluative” and more “facilitative” along the entire cycle?  In which case the question regarding the choice of a set of evaluations may become moot.

Rad Resources:

World Bank Independent Evaluation Group’s case study series on M&E systems

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) week. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from members of CLEAR. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

 

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I am Lycia Lima, the executive coordinator of the newest CLEAR center- for Brazil and Lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) Africa. We’re formally joining CLEAR later this year and are planning our inauguration in October 2015. I was also one of the organizers involved in the formation of the Brazilian M&E Network – Rede Brasileira de Monitoramento e Avaliaçã – which has become a very active association.

We’re based in Brazil, at the Sao Paulo School of Economics at Fundação  Getulio Vargas and work jointly with the school´s Center for Applied Microeconomics. Through CLEAR we’re looking forward to expanding into new areas and building bridges with the M&E communities in Brazil and elsewhere. In particular, we’ll be working to advance evaluation capacity development services and products in Portuguese for use in Lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) countries, all to foster evidence-based policy making in these countries.

Historically, our team in Brazil has had a lot of experience in carrying out impact evaluations in all sectors. Though we specialize in impact evaluation, we have experience in and appreciate the broader range of M&E approaches, and think that an integrated approach will make our work better. In this post, I have put together a few tips about impact evaluation that you would not learn in conventional econometrics books. This is advice I’d give to impact evaluators.

Lessons Learned: Know well the theory of change of your intervention! If you don´t know the theory of change well, you might not fully understand the causality channels and might leave important impact indicators out of the analysis. Get your hands dirty! Go to the field, talk to project managers, talk to beneficiaries and make sure you fully understand the intervention you are trying to evaluate. Also, be careful with the quality of your data. Make sure you spend some resources on hiring and training qualified staff to supervise data collection. Good quality data is crucial for your study.

Lessons Learned: Even if you are an empiricist and believe mostly in quantitative methods, do not underestimate the value of mixed methods. In particular, qualitative approaches will help you understand “why and how” things happened. Importantly, get to know M&E “foundational” literature from Patton, Scriven, Bamberger, and others.

Rad Resources: While in general M&E materials available in Portuguese are limited in numbers, there is a very useful impact evaluation book that I have co-authored with other Brazilian experts. The book may be obtained free at

http://www.fundacaoitausocial.org.br/_arquivosestaticos/FIS/pdf/livro_aval_econ.pdf

We look forward to contributing to the M&E literature base in Portuguese, so please check back with us on this.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) week. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from members of CLEAR. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

 

 

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I’m Urmy Shukla, Capacity Building Manager at the CLEAR South Asia Regional Center, hosted by J-PAL South Asia at the Institute for Financial Management and Research. Since our 2011 start with CLEAR we’ve developed a wide-range of activities aimed at improving monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity throughout the region, including 90 trainings for partners such as the Indian civil services, state governments, NGOs, donor agencies, and academic institutions. Each training requires a significant amount of planning and preparation, including a needs assessment to assess skills and the partners’ role in evaluation, the development of customized content, and delivering the course itself. As such, we want to ensure that are trainings are meeting their objectives. 

How do we know if our trainings are ‘working’?

As evaluators, we know that there are several steps to plan for, and later assess, effectiveness of our activities. Most importantly, we need to:

  • define a theory of change and/or results framework for program activities, focusing on desired outcomes
  • measure/assess the desired outcomes

For evaluation capacity development, these aren’t always easy to design and implement. But we’re taking several steps to assess the effectiveness of our trainings, including developing an organization-specific results framework and tracer surveys to track past training participants. We’re testing our approach as we’re going, and below are sharing some practical and strategic tips.

Hot Tips: For training tracer studies:

  • Clearly define training objectives from the outset. These objectives should go beyond skills gained, but should also include what you hope the participants will do after the training, within what is reasonably feasible during that timeline.
  • Develop a way to systematically organize your multiple objectives. This will make it easier for you to design future tracer surveys and needs assessments. We categorize our objectives by (a) partner type (those who either do evaluations, use evaluations for decision-making, fund evaluations, and/or commission evaluations) and (b) knowledge, attitude, or behavior (KAB). From this, we have developed a database of tracer survey questions, which can be easily filtered for each type of training.
  • Get partner buy-in early. Getting people to participate in a tracer study a year or two after the training can be hard, so give advance notice at the training that a tracer study will occur. Then have some contact with trainees – through newsletters, announcements, listservs – after the training to keep contact info current and so they remain familiar with you.

Rad Resources:

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) week. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from members of CLEAR. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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We are Claudia Maldonado Trujillo and Oliver Manuel Peña, from CLEAR for Spanish-speaking Latin America. We’re located in Mexico City at CIDE (Center for Research and Teaching in Economics), a leading institution in social sciences. We’re sharing our work in advancing knowledge in evaluating climate change and how we’re addressing it through the upcoming International Seminar on Climate Change and Development in Latin America.

Lesson Learned: Context and main issues. If you’ve followed monitoring and evaluation (M&E) initiatives over the last 10 to 20 years, you’ll have seen that many advances have occurred in Latin America – such as the creation of exemplary M&E systems at national and subnational levels, innovative approaches to evaluate social programs, and so on. Yet, climate change – one of our most challenging public problems – seems to have gotten considerably less attention from evaluators and policymakers. Why is this?

We think that evaluation of climate change policy faces three main types of challenges: methodological, political, and network-related.

Methodologically, M&E approaches for climate change adaptation and mitigation policies have obvious complexities: measurement, attribution and accurate verification, among others. These challenges require more than program based evaluation models, with interdisciplinary innovations needed to assess how to effectively tackle climate change.

Politically, climate change isn’t often “center stage” in national policymaking. Despite international commitments and assumed national responsibilities, average policymakers often focus on problems that seem more immediate to them or to their constituencies.

Network-related challenges follow political challenges, in that most policymakers do not convene around this topic, unless they are working specifically on climate change and environment issues.CLEAR blog 3

Knowing this, we’re using our platform as a regional center – along with the Inter-American Development Bank’s Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE) and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) – to convene and match up diverse, yet complementary, environmental specialists and policymakers with policymakers and stakeholders who don’t normally focus on climate change. Our goal is to raise awareness and advance the adoption of sound strategies – with reliable M&E instruments as a backbone at the International Seminar on Climate Change and Development in Latin America.

Lessons Learned: Institutional coordination with the IDB, SDC and other stakeholders on the agenda was key. It captured our complementary expertise, interests and concerns to shape an attractive and relevant agenda, drawing high-level participants with decision-making power.

Rad Resources: Learn more with these resources.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) week. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from members of CLEAR. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I’m Neha Sharma from the CLEAR Global Hub at the World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group. A key Hub role involves facilitating learning and sharing knowledge about evaluation capacity development. So I often think about how people learn. In this context, I’ve been reading a lot of behavioral science literature, and reflecting on what makes people learn to change behaviors.

Richard Thaler, University of Chicago Economist and Behavior Science Professor, recently wrote about how he changed his class’s grading scheme to minimize student complaints about “low” grades when he administered difficult tests (to get higher dispersion of grades to identify “star” students).  His trick was to change the denominator in the grading scheme from 100 to 137, meaning that the average student now scored in the 90s and not in the 70s. He achieved his desired results: high dispersion of grades and no student complaints about “low” grades!

Thaler’s blog made me wonder what effect this change in grading scheme had on student learning and the lessons it carried for communicating tough evaluation results. The relationship between performance and learning holds critical lessons for evaluators – does a 70 disguised as a 90 have an effect on learning?

Like classroom tests, evaluations that are seen as overly harsh or critical are often questioned and lessons are underused by the evaluated agency. This doesn’t mean that poor results should not be communicated – they absolutely should – but evaluators need to keep in mind that receiving and then learning from bad performance is not easy when there is a lot at stake – future funding, jobs, professional growth, and political stability. On the other hand, evaluations that reaffirm stakeholder-biases are futile too.

This balance between communicating actual performance and encouraging learning may be key to determining evaluation use. If evaluations are to fulfill their learning mission the “how to” learn is just as, if not more, relevant as the evaluation itself. Cognitive science research about behavior change could teach us a lot about how to encourage learning through evaluations. For instance, we see that easy is better than complicated, attractive is better than dull, and social is better rather than teaching in isolation when trying to change behaviors. Behavior science is an interesting field of study for evaluators – to help us demystify the relationship between evaluation performance and learning.

Rad Resources:

Thaler is one of many behavioral scientists (and psychologists, economists) writing about what influences our behavior. Here are more.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) week. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from members of CLEAR. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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We are Zhao Min, Deputy Director of the Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Institute (AFDI) in Shanghai, China, and Ningquin Wu, Coordinator at AFDI. AFDI is a member of the CLEAR Initiative (Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results) and hosts the East Asia CLEAR Center. CLEAR promotes evaluation capacity building in regional centers across the globe. This week’s blogs are by CLEAR members.

Effective governance and spending is important in a city like Shanghai, with a population of 24 million residents. To that end, in 2011, the Shanghai government established a performance-based budgeting (PBB) system. Performance budgeting aims to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public expenditure by linking the funding of public sector organizations to the results they deliver. It uses systematic performance information (indicators, evaluations, program costings, etc.) to make this link. The effect of performance budgeting may be felt in improved prioritization of expenditure, and in improved service effectiveness and/or efficiency. Our partners at the Shanghai Municipal Finance Bureau (the Bureau) are working to establish a sound management approach in applying performance-based management concepts to their public budgeting framework. We’ve been researching their PBB efforts. Here are some lessons from their PBB experiences, useful to others who are working on using performance to better manage budgets and spending.

The key ingredients in setting up Shanghai’s PBB system are below, which drew on advanced theory and international practices of PBB management.

  • A strong framework for running the performance-based budgeting system
  • Sound legal systems in place
  • Signing of performance contracts by public managers to improve accountability
  • Public managers having sufficient discretion to achieve results
  • Use of accrual accounting to do comprehensive accounting of government costs
  • Institutional arrangements and manpower

There were many monitoring and evaluation elements that were also part of the PBB arrangements, described below.

  • An ex-ante budget review system was established, with an institutional framework for the evaluation of earmarked fiscal funds.
  • A mid-term monitoring system of fiscal budget funded projects was established.
  • Ex-post evaluations are planned for all public departments.
  • Self-evaluations are being phased in among budget departments
  • The application of evaluation findings to budget management has been enhanced.

Additionally, the Bureau is implementing these processes:

  • Releasing of evaluation findings to all public departments
  • Providing recommendations for improvement on performance related problems
  • Monitoring the implementation of action plans by public departments 

Rad Resources:

Learn more about performance-based budgeting and how to do it with these resources. CLEAR blog 1

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Centers for Learning on Evaluation and Results (CLEAR) week. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from members of CLEAR. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Managing multiple social media channels for your business or personal use can be difficult because each social channel is on a separate site. Managing these sites can take a lot of time out of your day, that’s why I use Hootsuite to manage AEA’s social channels, including Twitter and Facebook. Hootsuite is a social media management tool that helps you monitor your social channels and track what people are saying in the field. I have compiled a few ways you can benefit from Hootsuite!

social

Rad Resource: Monitor multiple channels in one place

The best feature of Hootsuite is that it allows you to manage multiple social media streams on one dashboard.  The tool allows you to view:

  • Twitter
  • Facebook Profiles, Events, Groups, and Pages
  • LinkedIn Profiles, Pages, and Groups
  • Google+ Pages (currently not personal profiles)
  • Foursquare

You can post and monitor your social media pages all from this one tool. You can even post the same content across multiple platforms. However be careful here—your Facebook fans and Twitter followers may have different needs. Also, Twitter only allows 140 characters whereas Facebook allows much longer and richer posts with photos and videos.

Rad Resource: Schedule Posts

The scheduling feature on Hootsuite is very beneficial especially for the busy professional who still wants to have a presence on real time social conversations. Hootsuite allows you to determine the time, date, and channel for your post. We recommend not posting too far in advance in order to stay relevant with your followers.

Hot Tool: Customize your dashboard

Hootsuite allows you to customize the information you see about each of your social media channels.  For example, if you add your Twitter account to Hootsuite, you can customize the dashboard to view your newsfeed, mentions from other twitter users, your tweets, new followers, retweets, scheduled tweets, and the list goes on. This allows you to see all the pieces of information that are truly relevant to your needs.

Rad Resource: Monitor topics and hashtags

In addition to creating streams for your social media channels, you can create streams for keywords and hashtags which allow you to follow conversations in the field. By simply choosing “add stream” then select “search” or “keywords” you can enter keywords, phrases, or popular hashtags. Follow words such as evaluation, eval, data visualization, or #dataviz. Hootsuite will show you all of the tweets and posts related to this theme or topic. This is a great way to stay on top of the latest conversations in the field.

Click here to learn more about getting started on Hootsuite.

Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I am Ryan Watkins from George Washington University. Needs have been described and defined in many different ways of the years (see the December issue of New Directions in Evaluation for elaboration). One consequence of this often perplexing medley of definitions is that the word need has lost much of its meaning. Here I will try to help clarify some important relationships with a little additional precision to our language around needs we can greatly improve our results.

Lesson Learned:

When conducting a needs assessment…

  1. Differentiate Needs from Solutions. It is easy to get tangled up in the distinction between needs and solutions to needs. Don’t confuse what you want to accomplished (closing needs) with the activities and resources used to achieve those results (such as, homeless shelters, mobile phones, and even money).
  1. Use Need as a Noun, not as a Verb. You do NOT need to buy a new car. Nor do they need Internet access. These are options that may (or may not) help satisfy needs. Yet, by using need as a verb (or in a verb sense) we commit ourselves to one solution (a car, or Internet access) before we define the need. Rather, use need as a noun (50% reduction in gender-based violence this year) so that you have a basis for comparing potential solutions and guiding decisions.   
  1. Don’t Confuse Needs and Wants. Really strong wants or desires are frequently elevated to the status of needs through our choice of words. Just ask any 3-year-old in a toy store if they want or need a shiny new toy. Don’t confuse the two.
  1. Expand to Include Individual, Group, and Societal Needs. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs popularized the concept that needs are individual. Nevertheless, groups (such as, teams, organizations, and institutions) have needs, as do societies.   Quality needs assessments recognize and align needs across three levels.
  1. Balance Needs and Felt-Needs. Felt-needs are often described as those perceived by the community rather than defined by an external expert. Both views on needs can be valuable. Recognize however that while people have perceptions of needs, their perceptions may not be an accurate reflection of reality. News reports, for example, may distort peoples’ perceptions on crime rates in a city. Therefore, integrate externally verifiable measures of needs in all assessments.

Rad Resource:

This blog is based on: Watkins, R., & Kavale, J. (2014). Needs: Defining what you are assessing. In J. W. Altschuld & R. Watkins (Eds.), Needs assessment: Trends and a view toward the future. New Directions for Evaluation, 144, 19–31.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I’m Lisle Hites, Chair of the Needs Assessment TIG and Director of the Evaluation and Assessment Unit (EAU) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). Today’s posting is about the use of data visualization to enhance your needs assessment.

Recently, my team worked with a state agency to help them identify potential sites for a pre-k development initiative. We used ArcGIS 10.2 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to geocode and map all child care centers and grant applicants within the state. In turn, these data were displayed on an interactive, web-based map using ESRI’s ArcOnline platform. Supplemental data regarding percentage of people in poverty were added to the map to enhance the decision making process for policy makers (American Community Survey Census).

Displaying these multiple sets of data visually allowed state representatives to see the highest concentrations of four year olds in the state as well as potential gaps in service coverage by existing pre-k programs. In other words, these data were used to reduce the potential for duplication of services and to identify areas of greatest need.

Lessons Learned:

  1. Needs assessments can be conducted in a variety of ways using existing data in new and innovative ways.
  2. While state representatives had ideas of what they wanted to know, data visualization led them to refine their questions and identify additional sources of information to support their “data-driven” decision.
  3. Hardcopy paper maps of each county did not provide enough geographic detail of childcare facilities. To maximize the large amount of disparate data, an online interactive mapping platform was critical to the success of this project.

Rad Resources:

ArcGIS Online (n.d.). The mapping platform for your organization. ESRI.

ArcNews (2013, Summer). ArcGIS 10.2 brings transformational capabilities to users. ESRI.

Azzam, T., & Robinson, D. (2013). GIS in evaluation: Utilizing the power of geographic

information systems to represent evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 34(2),

207-224. doi: 10.1177/1098214012461710

Evergreen, S. (2013). Presenting data effectively: Community your findings for maximum

impact. NY: Sage Publications.

United States Census Bureau (2015). American community census.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

 

I’m Maurya West Meiers, Senior Evaluation Officer at the World Bank and coauthor of A Guide to Assessing Needs: Essential Tools for Collecting Information, Making Decisions, and Achieving Development Results.

I often work with groups in carrying out needs assessments, collecting data, training, facilitating retreats, etc.  So I’m always looking for facilitation tips and resources.  Today I’m sharing some favorites.

Lessons learned: 

If your end-goal in your meeting with a group is to gather data or make decisions (through focus groups, multi-criteria analysis, etc.), you’ll want to do some early rapport building to get people comfortable with one another and talking.

  • Make sure the right people are in the room. It seems obvious, but take the time to define your targets in advance and make sure that those participating are those targeted.  Be prepared to gently remove people who don’t fit your pre-defined needs.  Have another coordinator with you to help in this process.  And have your room comfortably furnished and arranged.
  • Learn the names of participants in advance and give a warm greeting when they enter.  These are common networking techniques because they work and put people at ease.
  • Use name badges and table tents. Have these items ready.  You may wish to let participants write their own names instead of pre-printing them.  Perhaps Jennifer prefers to have everyone call her Jen – so give her the chance to write her name as she wishes.
  • Get people talking early.  As people enter the room, introduce them to others – and have ideas listed on a flip chart or card that they can discuss with one another.  Keep people moving and mixing.  Use a chime or bell to signal a move.

Use icebreakers.  An easy icebreaker involves giving participants name badges and asking them to write two or three things they feel comfortable discussing with others.  Example:

Meiers

  • Energizers and games. If your group work – such as in a retreat – covers a lengthy period of time, use energizers (usually involving some movement) or games to keep people alert and engaged.  If you search for energizers on YouTube, you’ll find many ideas you can adopt and adapt for your purposes and you’ll see how they work ‘in action’ and not just on paper.  This quick and easy energizer is one such example.

Rad Resources. Here are some of my “go to” books and websites on facilitation techniques and tools.

 

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

 

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