AEA365 | A Tip-a-Day by and for Evaluators

CAT | Needs Assessment

Don’t scroll down! Don’t hit back button yet, read this first! My name is Ryan Watkins and I am a professor at George Washington University. Whereas many aspects of a needs assessment parallels an evaluation, the making of recommendations about what to do next is often a new challenge for us when we move from the back-end to the front-end of project (or program) design. Needs assessments, by definition, do however require that we not only identify and measure the “needs”, but that we also make recommendations about what to in order to satisfy (or partially satisfy) those needs in the future.

The good news is that there are many tools that can help us through the challenges of making these difficult choices. And yes, these are typically very complex decisions without any clear “best” options. The nature of these decisions is that we must forecast the future and what results we can reasonably expect of various alternatives. Foresight is never an exact science and it does present some risks to our projects and institutions. But making recommendations is a distinguishing characteristic of needs assessments.Watkins

The systems theory principle of equifinality tells us, however, that for any result we want to achieve (or need we want to satisfy) there is always more than one way to get there. Therefore we must know about our options and make choices among competing alternatives – which is typically not an easy task. To succeed, and to end our needs assessment with valuable recommendations about what to do next, we should balance our rational decision-making with our value-based decision-making.

Rad Resources:

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I’m Ingrid Guerra-Lopez, Professor at Wayne State University and CEO of the Institute for Needs Assessment & Evaluation, and I want to help you through the transition from problem identification to solution design. Needs assessment give us an excellent process to identify the critical gaps in results (what), analyze contributing root causes or factors (why), and then make suggestions on (how) to address the problems and opportunities. A useful needs assessment includes recommendations that address problems and opportunities from a systemic perspective.   However, the level of detail with which those recommended solutions should be delivered to stakeholders can vary greatly, and this in turn impacts the focus and scope of work.

A design-oriented needs assessment is focused on analysis for the purposes producing specifications for designing, developing, and implementing solutions effectively. For example, needs assessment with a knowledge and learning design orientation may be triggered by the desire to develop a learning program for a particular target group. The assumption is that the learning program is a solution to a given problem, hopefully identified through a previous and rigorous needs assessment. The focus in this case, is primarily to investigate what the solution should look like, how it should be implemented, and what will enable it to achieve useful results.

Hot Tip: Collaborate with those who will be designing, developing, and implementing solutions to understand their decision-making and information requirements. Clarifying the specific questions that must be answered for solution designers and implementers will ensure you focus on concrete and ‘actionable’ information.

Hot Tip: Ensure that you gather information from a cross-section of stakeholders to understand the specific requirements of the solution. For example, in order to define what a particular educational program should look like, include potential participants, employers of program completers, subject matter experts, instructors, administrators, etc.

Hot Tip: Balance perspectives of “must have” and “nice to have.” Our process must help us understand in concrete terms what the solution must help participants/users do and achieve, not only what they may want as solution features, characteristics, or content.

Hot Tip: Agree ahead of time on a process and criteria for integrating, and potentially weighing, the solutions requirements of the various stakeholders. At the very least, this will help you make recommendations about implementing phases in light of utility, readiness, feasibility, acceptability, resources, and other agreed upon criteria.

Rad Resources:

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I’m Hsin-Ling (Sonya) Hung, Program Co-chair for the Needs Assessment (NA) TIG. Because of my involvement in the TIG, I have reviewed annual conference proposals since 2008. Over the years I found that some proposals only had a title associated with needs or needs assessment, but these are were not needs assessments. Since needs assessments are often misunderstood, here I share what I think are the key elements constituting a needs assessment.

Using cooking as an metaphor, even a skilled chef would not be able to prepare a tasty dish without the necessary ingredients. So, if you are going to do a basic needs assessment, certain elements must be included. To create a simple ‘recipe’ for planning and reviewing needs assessments, I’m starting with Altschuld and Kumar’s definition of needs assessment.

The fundamental of a needs assessment is to assess need (attend or resolve a problem) for improvement of organizations or systems. A need is the measurable discrepancy between two conditions—“what is” and “what should be.” Without assessing a ‘gap’ it is not a NA. A genuine needs assessment project would describe needs and the conditions associated with them.Hung

So how do we make this dish? After problems/issues have been depicted, you go through a process to understand the situation, the nature and the causes of the gap(s), prioritizing needs, making decisions about their resolution, and finally developing an action plan for improvement. All of these procedures would engage many constituencies and involve collecting much information. It might include organizing a needs assessment committee (NAC), examining root causes, prioritization, making needs-based decisions, and implementing action plan–all key parts of a simple needs assessment recipe. Detailed of all these can be found in the needs assessment kit edited by James W. Altschuld.

Main Ingredient: Identifying Needs as Discrepancy

Key Ingredients: Organizing a NAC; examining root causes; prioritizing; making needs-based decisions; and implementing an action improvement plan.

Lesson Learned: A needs statement presented in discrepancy form is essential, as well as other components presented above. Without these, the needs assessment recipe will produce an unappetizing product

Rad Resources: Check out the Needs Assessment Kit edited by James Altschuld.

Book 1 Needs Assessment, An Overview

Book 2 Phase 1, Preassessment (Getting the Process Started)

Book 3 Phase 2, Assessment (Collecting Data)

Book 4 Phase 2, Assessment (Analysis and Prioritization)

Book 5 Phase 3, Post assessment (Planning for Action and Evaluating the Needs Assessment)

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Welcome to Needs Assessment TIG week on AEA 365! I’m Lisle Hites, Chair of the Needs Assessment TIG, Associate Professor in Health Care Organization and Policy and Director of the Evaluation and Assessment Unit (EAU) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health. We hope you enjoy this week’s TIG contributions and look forward to seeing you at our sessions in Atlanta. Today’s posting is about the use of a Scenario Based Needs Assessment to Assess Community Needs.

In over 15 years of working with agencies and communities to assess needs, I’ve learned there’s really no one technique that suits every situation. To illustrate this point I’m sharing a recent, somewhat unusual, community-based needs assessment we conducted that was very specifically focused on the needs of daycare centers to prepare for a potential “active shooter”. While this unfortunate scenario has been fairly well assessed for public schools and other agencies (and considerable resources have been applied to follow-up on identified needs), little attention has been payed to this highly vulnerable daycare group.

We drew our methods from the disaster and emergency preparedness field. Both Federal Emergency Management Agency and Homeland Security have developed evaluation protocols (Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program) to help prepare and test plans to assess needs and prepare for disaster events. With our county’s Children’s Policy Council and local law enforcement we developed a scenario that would initiate conversations and encourage representatives of daycare centers and law enforcement agencies to identify, discuss, and capture needs. By planting evaluators within each discussion group, we captured identified needs, found solutions in some cases, developed plans for finding these, and gathered lessons learned. Altogether, we acquired a reasonably comprehensive set of immediate needs for this non-homogenous group of small daycare businesses. As a result of this scenario based needs assessment and the new connections among daycare center teams and law enforcement officers, daycare centers have a better idea of what they need to do to prepare for an active shooter event and now many have relationships with local law enforcement to begin this preparation.

Lessons Learned:

  1. Needs Assessments can be conducted in a variety of ways using existing data in new and innovative ways.
  2. During the conduct of a Needs Assessment, nothing precludes you from disseminating findings (i.e. lessons learned) and even solutions to needs at the same time.
  3. Sometimes Needs Assessments are an end as well as a means, reducing the needs they seek to assess.

Rad Resource: US Department of Homeland Security (2013). Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) at https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1914-25045-8890/hseep_apr13_.pdf

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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My name is Natalia Woolley. I am a GEDI scholar from the 2014-15 cohort, and a graduate student in the Community Health Sciences department at UCLA. As part of the GEDI program, I interned at Kaiser Permanente (KP), in the Community Benefit Department’s evaluation unit.

At KP, I provided support for the Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA), a federally mandated process all non-profit hospitals must conduct every three years. During the internship I focused on the methods used to collect and analyze primary and secondary data. I also collaborated in the department’s efforts to ensure primary data collection methods were systematically responsive to the cultural diversity found in the communities served by KP.

Lessons Learned:

Operationalizing culturally responsive practices is a challenge. Although many scholars have defined culture and articulated its importance when conducting evaluations, it is still a challenge to operationalize some cultural concepts. Nevertheless, I believe acknowledging the challenge is an important step into making needs assessments more culturally responsive.

Successful primary data collection should be culturally responsive. Hospitals must collect primary data as part of the CHNA. This process allows hospitals to better understand the communities’ main health issues, priorities and resources. To successfully connect with community members, hospitals should ensure their outreach and engagement are culturally responsive.

Hot Tips:

Helpful Hints: Secondary data can inform culturally responsive primary data collection. Secondary data provides a great deal of information about the groups living in each community. For example, secondary analysis results can provide a snapshot of the community demographics, including the population percentage with limited English proficiency. Evaluators can use this information to include language appropriate resources in the data collection process.

However, secondary data might miss some marginalized groups. To go beyond the secondary data, it is helpful to identify and contact organizations working with marginalized groups. For instance, Los Angeles County has an extensive database of organizations providing services to groups in need (https://www.211la.org/). Another possible option is to solicit input from community health workers servicing these groups.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Graduate Education Diversity Internship (GEDI) Program week. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from AEA’s GEDI Program and its interns. For more information on GEDI, see their webpage here: http://www.eval.org/GEDI Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

I am Ryan Watkins from George Washington University. Needs have been described and defined in many different ways of the years (see the December issue of New Directions in Evaluation for elaboration). One consequence of this often perplexing medley of definitions is that the word need has lost much of its meaning. Here I will try to help clarify some important relationships with a little additional precision to our language around needs we can greatly improve our results.

Lesson Learned:

When conducting a needs assessment…

  1. Differentiate Needs from Solutions. It is easy to get tangled up in the distinction between needs and solutions to needs. Don’t confuse what you want to accomplished (closing needs) with the activities and resources used to achieve those results (such as, homeless shelters, mobile phones, and even money).
  1. Use Need as a Noun, not as a Verb. You do NOT need to buy a new car. Nor do they need Internet access. These are options that may (or may not) help satisfy needs. Yet, by using need as a verb (or in a verb sense) we commit ourselves to one solution (a car, or Internet access) before we define the need. Rather, use need as a noun (50% reduction in gender-based violence this year) so that you have a basis for comparing potential solutions and guiding decisions.   
  1. Don’t Confuse Needs and Wants. Really strong wants or desires are frequently elevated to the status of needs through our choice of words. Just ask any 3-year-old in a toy store if they want or need a shiny new toy. Don’t confuse the two.
  1. Expand to Include Individual, Group, and Societal Needs. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs popularized the concept that needs are individual. Nevertheless, groups (such as, teams, organizations, and institutions) have needs, as do societies.   Quality needs assessments recognize and align needs across three levels.
  1. Balance Needs and Felt-Needs. Felt-needs are often described as those perceived by the community rather than defined by an external expert. Both views on needs can be valuable. Recognize however that while people have perceptions of needs, their perceptions may not be an accurate reflection of reality. News reports, for example, may distort peoples’ perceptions on crime rates in a city. Therefore, integrate externally verifiable measures of needs in all assessments.

Rad Resource:

This blog is based on: Watkins, R., & Kavale, J. (2014). Needs: Defining what you are assessing. In J. W. Altschuld & R. Watkins (Eds.), Needs assessment: Trends and a view toward the future. New Directions for Evaluation, 144, 19–31.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I’m Lisle Hites, Chair of the Needs Assessment TIG and Director of the Evaluation and Assessment Unit (EAU) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). Today’s posting is about the use of data visualization to enhance your needs assessment.

Recently, my team worked with a state agency to help them identify potential sites for a pre-k development initiative. We used ArcGIS 10.2 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to geocode and map all child care centers and grant applicants within the state. In turn, these data were displayed on an interactive, web-based map using ESRI’s ArcOnline platform. Supplemental data regarding percentage of people in poverty were added to the map to enhance the decision making process for policy makers (American Community Survey Census).

Displaying these multiple sets of data visually allowed state representatives to see the highest concentrations of four year olds in the state as well as potential gaps in service coverage by existing pre-k programs. In other words, these data were used to reduce the potential for duplication of services and to identify areas of greatest need.

Lessons Learned:

  1. Needs assessments can be conducted in a variety of ways using existing data in new and innovative ways.
  2. While state representatives had ideas of what they wanted to know, data visualization led them to refine their questions and identify additional sources of information to support their “data-driven” decision.
  3. Hardcopy paper maps of each county did not provide enough geographic detail of childcare facilities. To maximize the large amount of disparate data, an online interactive mapping platform was critical to the success of this project.

Rad Resources:

ArcGIS Online (n.d.). The mapping platform for your organization. ESRI.

ArcNews (2013, Summer). ArcGIS 10.2 brings transformational capabilities to users. ESRI.

Azzam, T., & Robinson, D. (2013). GIS in evaluation: Utilizing the power of geographic

information systems to represent evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 34(2),

207-224. doi: 10.1177/1098214012461710

Evergreen, S. (2013). Presenting data effectively: Community your findings for maximum

impact. NY: Sage Publications.

United States Census Bureau (2015). American community census.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

 

I’m Maurya West Meiers, Senior Evaluation Officer at the World Bank and coauthor of A Guide to Assessing Needs: Essential Tools for Collecting Information, Making Decisions, and Achieving Development Results.

I often work with groups in carrying out needs assessments, collecting data, training, facilitating retreats, etc.  So I’m always looking for facilitation tips and resources.  Today I’m sharing some favorites.

Lessons learned: 

If your end-goal in your meeting with a group is to gather data or make decisions (through focus groups, multi-criteria analysis, etc.), you’ll want to do some early rapport building to get people comfortable with one another and talking.

  • Make sure the right people are in the room. It seems obvious, but take the time to define your targets in advance and make sure that those participating are those targeted.  Be prepared to gently remove people who don’t fit your pre-defined needs.  Have another coordinator with you to help in this process.  And have your room comfortably furnished and arranged.
  • Learn the names of participants in advance and give a warm greeting when they enter.  These are common networking techniques because they work and put people at ease.
  • Use name badges and table tents. Have these items ready.  You may wish to let participants write their own names instead of pre-printing them.  Perhaps Jennifer prefers to have everyone call her Jen – so give her the chance to write her name as she wishes.
  • Get people talking early.  As people enter the room, introduce them to others – and have ideas listed on a flip chart or card that they can discuss with one another.  Keep people moving and mixing.  Use a chime or bell to signal a move.

Use icebreakers.  An easy icebreaker involves giving participants name badges and asking them to write two or three things they feel comfortable discussing with others.  Example:

Meiers

  • Energizers and games. If your group work – such as in a retreat – covers a lengthy period of time, use energizers (usually involving some movement) or games to keep people alert and engaged.  If you search for energizers on YouTube, you’ll find many ideas you can adopt and adapt for your purposes and you’ll see how they work ‘in action’ and not just on paper.  This quick and easy energizer is one such example.

Rad Resources. Here are some of my “go to” books and websites on facilitation techniques and tools.

 

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

 

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Hello, my name is Sue Hamann, and I work at the National Institutes of Health. One part of my job is to solicit and review proposals from evaluation contractors for various types of evaluation projects, including needs assessment and program planning. Today I will share some tips about improving your proposed needs assessment.

Hot Tips:

Show that you are knowledgeable about needs assessment. Don’t even think about submitting a proposal that does not define needs assessment or mention its rich history and development. This sounds obvious, but you would be surprised that I often review proposals that are lacking evidence that the proposers know the field. Be sure to cite the Altschuld and Ryan edition (New Directions for Evaluation, #144, winter 2014). Justify your proposed methodology based on existing literature.

Assemble and describe a team with all the required skills. Michael Scriven in his 1991 Evaluation Thesaurus listed the following as content areas in which evaluators should be skilled: statistics, cost analysis, ethical analysis, management theory and practice, pedagogy, social psychology, contract law, interviewing skills, professional politics, presentation graphics, dissemination, synthesis. Altschuld and Watkins (2014) stated that needs assessment involves the following methods, in addition to the qualitative and quantitative methods employed in other evaluation activities: gap analysis, causal analysis, prioritization strategies, comparison of solutions. Needs assessment is usually a team effort. Make sure that you document and budget for the skills that you already have available and the skills that you will add to your team.

Be alert to the culture of the organization to which you are applying. I read a lot of proposals that are obviously boilerplate. It is generally not worth your time to submit a vague needs assessment proposal, that is, one that is not tailored explicitly to the organization or solicitation. Sometimes you have to do some online searching about the history and status of an organization to determine the kind of needs assessment that will be consistent with the culture of an organization and useful to it. Be sure to read the article from Maurya West Meiers and colleagues (New Directions for Evaluation, #144, winter 2014); it has great tips about planning international needs assessments, but the tips are applicable to any new environment.

Document your membership in AEA. If you are reading this blog, you are probably a member of the largest group of evaluators in the world. Be sure to mention this when you state your qualifications. If you belong to the Needs Assessment TIG, say so. If you do not belong and you are interested being paid to do needs assessments, you should join and become active in the TIG.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Ever thought about doing research on needs assessment (or evaluation for that matter)? My name is Ryan Watkins and what follows is a short description of a basic framework that can help you consider the types of research that could be useful. Based on Briggs (1982) and Driscoll (1995), the following research paradigms can offer choices for your research design:

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental: Experimental research designs can provide educational researchers with the “most effective means of establishing causal influences on a phenomenon of interest” (Driscoll, 1995, p. 323). While quasi-experimental research designs may be less effective in providing evidence of casual relationships, they offer pragmatic alternatives when meeting the requirements of experimental designs are not practical.

Meta -Analysis: The meta-analysis research design is “a widely used method for combining results from different quantitative research studies” (p. 71) on the same phenomenon (Gall, Gall, and Borg, 1999).

Case Study/Ethnography: According to Trochim (2001), “A case study is an intensive study of a specific individual or specific context… There is no single way to conduct a case study, and a combination of methods (such as unstructured interviewing and direct observation) can be uses.” (p. 161)

Technology Development and Evaluation using a Novel Technique: As a field of research focused on useful application, needs assessment research should be active in the development, application, evaluation, and continuous improvement of assessments using technologies (e.g., online surveys).

Cost Analysis: The requirements of decision-makers for data related to the cost-effectiveness of decisions presents researchers with a pragmatic research paradigm with obvious application benefits.

Model Development and Evaluation: Models offer useful tools for conceptualizing the relationships and complexities among the components of a system.

Novel Technique Development and Evaluation: Techniques are the processes used to accomplish results (i.e., produce products, obtain outputs, and/or achieve consequences). The development and validation of a novel technique for accomplishing results within needs assessment (or evaluation) is an essential role of the researcher.

Theory Development: Theories help us explain or predict a phenomenon. In others words, a theory is the answer to why something (such as a behavior) occurs or does not occur within a context. Making and testing theories helps advance research and practice.

Rad Resources:

Briggs, L. (1982). A Comment on the Training of Students in Instructional Design. Educational Technology. 22(8), 25-27.

Driscoll, M. (1995). Paradigms For Research in Instructional Systems. In Angling, G. (1995). Instructional Technology: Past, present, and future. Englewood, Co: Libraries Unlimited.

Gall, J., Gall, M. and Borg, W. (1999). Applying Educational Research: A practical guide (4th ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Trochim, W. (2001). The Research Methods Knowledge Base (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Atomicdog.com Publishing.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Needs Assessment (NA) TIG Week with our colleagues in the Needs Assessment Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our NA TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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