AEA365 | A Tip-a-Day by and for Evaluators

CAT | Feminist Issues in Evaluation

Hello AEA365 readers!  I’m Kate S. McCleary, Ph.D., researcher and evaluator at The LEAD Center  within the Wisconsin Center for Education Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.  On March 11th, my colleagues and I gathered for an office retreat to discuss our work as a Center and also to share themes in evaluation that are important to us. I shared feminist epistemologies in relation to feminist evaluation. When I began to unpack central ideas from the literature around feminist epistemologies, based on my own positionality in this world, I came up with five central themes.

Lessons Learned: For me, feminist epistemologies focus on…

  1. Women’s lives and the oppression of women and other marginalized groups: Feminist epistemologies explore difference and seek to know and understand the lived experience of those whose voices/experiences have been marginalized. Chandra T. Mohanty’s book Feminism Without Borders explores the plurality of contemporary, global feminism.
  2. Power, authority, and hierarchy: Feminist epistemologies seek to “decenter the center.” This is the title of Uma Narayan and Susan Harding’s book that explores the way feminism is enacted across borders, and in multicultural and postcolonial contexts.
  3. Relationships: The relationship that individuals have within their homes, communities, broader society, and the world hold meaning. Carol Hanisch’s (1969) claim that “the personal is political” holds true today.
  4. Facts and findings are all “value tinged”: Knowledge and knowing is socially situated; thus no one is ever able to get rid of one’s own values.
  5. Understanding the lived, quotidian experiences of women and other individuals: In 1987, Dorothy Smith wrote a book The Everyday World As Problematic that called on researchers to be attentive to the full spectrum of what constitutes women’s, and other groups, lives.

Rad Resource: There are 16 different TED Talks categorized under the topic of feminism. Feminism can be explored through media, popular culture, and literature. Watch Roxanne Gay’s talk if you question whether you are a feminist!

Hot Tip: Organize a retreat or coffee break to discuss feminist evaluation with colleagues. When we take time to learn from each other as colleagues, there is the possibility for ongoing conversation and growth.

Rad Resources: Gloria Anzaldúa’s book Borderlands: La Frontera and bell hook’s Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center are seminal pieces, and were instrumental in my early exploration of feminism.  The Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Practice edited by S.N. Hesse-Biber (2012) is a great resource to ponder the connection between feminist theory and practice (hence the name). Andrea Doucet and Natasha Mauthner (2012) have a useful chapter titled “Knowing responsibly: Ethics, feminist epistemologies and methodologies” which is in Ethics in Qualitative Research (2nd edition).

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Hi, I am Priya Alvarez, a feminist evaluator working at UN Women. During the past 12 months, I worked on an evaluation combining feminist and systems thinking approaches with Katrina Rojas/Universalia, Annalise Moser and Bob Williams. The evaluation assessed UN Women’s contribution to UN system coordination on gender equality and the empowerment of women (GEEW).

Applying the systems approach helped us examine the complexity and diversity of scenarios and stakeholders that articulate a very dynamic system within which UN Women exercises its coordination mandate. We explored the relationships among the elements in the system, paying special attention to the multiple perspectives on GEEW and system boundaries.

The feminist approach allowed us to interrogate power relations, including the reproduction of corporate identities, to capture how organizational culture enables or disables transformation.

Lessons learned: Coupling these two approaches helped us better understand how certain dimensions of the system affect the promotion of GEEW, negatively and positively.

  • Incentives matter for horizontal coordination on GEEW among entities with vertical accountability (reporting to a headquarters).
  • A shared common vision and passion for equality creates a sense of purpose and community that enables innovation and fuels meaningful actions.
  • Expertise-based credibility is essential in the absence of financial resources as an incentive.
  • Gender champions do make a difference in mobilizing others to transform gender power relations.

Lessons learned: Ideological boundaries are important drivers for system coordination in addition to traditional boundaries such as money, resources or capacity.

  • Internal organizational integrity and consistency on GEEW are as important as the technical knowledge and approaches used to mainstream gender in policies and programs.
  • Institutional relations based on trust-based alliances, are key for countering dominant discourses and formal structures.

Rad Resources:

Srilatha Batliwala’s Feminist Leadership for Social Transformation unpacks the leadership traits and underlying principles of organizations which embody feminist approaches: less hierarchical and top down; multilayered and collective leadership, introspective and critical of their own leadership; innovative in their practices and consistently infuse a dimension of advocacy in their systems and actions.

Joanne Sandler and Aruna Rao’s Strategies of Feminist Bureaucrats: United Nations Experiences; Rosalind Eyben and Laura Turquet’s Feminist in Development Organizations: Change from the Margins and Lucy Ferguson’s This is Our Gender Person highlight the dilemmas and contradictions of institutional feminism and daily politics. They underscore the creative possibilities of networking and working from the margins of the mainstream to realize the transformative aims and power of feminism.

Bob Williams and Sjon van ‘t Hof’s Wicked Solutions: A Systems Approach to Complex Problems and Dick Morris’ Thinking about systems for sustainable lifestyles helped us understand systems as subjective and changeable and balanced our approach to complexity.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I’m Rita Fierro from Fierro Consulting and I specialize in working with vulnerable populations in a more inclusive way. An inclusive conversation is one in which differences in perspectives are leveraged as opportunities instead of threats or ignored.

Lessons Learned: To suggest to a client that a gender-responsive evaluation or an inclusive facilitation process is needed (along gender, race, ethnic, class, or sexual orientation lines), I must know how to advocate for inclusion. The client has to see the benefits of including more stakeholders to participate in the planning stages of the work:

  • Effective strategies. If only men or only professionals are involved in planning a strategy or an initiative for a more diverse audience, the approach will be ineffective once it faces a wider audience. Learning how to talk with someone who doesn’t move, talk, think, or look like you to get back insightful feedback early on is essential to having a positive impact.
  • Sustainability. When we build our capacity to have inclusive conversations, we learn to see common threads between our passions and those of others. We build more effective partnerships and discover more support than we thought possible. Initiatives take legs of their own; people continue to invest when the funding ends.
  • Wisdom. Often people on the margins disengage because they understand and see things that people in charge missed. Without an opportunity to voice their critique, they give up. Inclusive conversations help surface hidden information. For instance, recipients may voice threats of gender violence as a result of participating in the evaluation.
  • Creativity. Building your ability to plan and talk across differences means building your capacity to be creative, flexible, original, genuine, and positive at the same time. These skills are helpful in other areas, too.
  • Authenticity. Misunderstandings among differences often come from some pushing to be heard or others pulling away for not being heard. Emotions build up and fester. When we are more inclusive, we create opportunities to voice tensions and listen deeply so people can be seen and heard. The result is often releasing of fear, anger, and shame and more compassion. The group can get much closer.

All the examples above focus on gender, but you can use other examples from your own context to advocate for inclusion. Make your own list: what do you see as the benefits of inclusion?

Rad Resource: Don’t know what an inclusive conversation looks like? Click here.  Want to build your capacity to have inclusive conversations? Subscribe to my blog. I’m writing 13 posts on inclusive conversations.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Hi there!  I’m Michael Bamberger and I have worked on gender evaluation with civil society, UN, foundations, and bilateral donor agencies.  The longer you work in this field, the more you recognize the complexity of the processes and outcomes you are trying to understand.

There is growing recognition that many development programs are complex. They have many components, multiple funders and implementing agencies, and even more stakeholders – usually with different objectives.   Programs are also influenced by multiple external factors (e.g. economic, political and institutional), affecting how they are designed and implemented, as well as their outcomes.  Finally, the processes of change result from multiple, non-linear causal chains, which are difficult to identify and measure.

All these dimensions are critical for evaluating gender equality and women’s empowerment (“gender” for short) dimensions of development programs.  The following are some of the common complexity issues in gender evaluation:

  • Societies have multiple social control mechanisms determining the “appropriate” behavior of women and men in the household, community, work place and the wider political arena. Many gender programs must include multiple components to simultaneously address a wide range of social control mechanisms.  Consequently,  innovative, complexity-responsive evaluation designs are required.
  • Given the many mechanisms of social control that resist change, a common phenomenon is “one step forward and two steps back” as initial successes in one area (such a women’s access to mobile phones or access to markets through micro-credit) can encounter “push-back”. This means that recursive, non-linear models of change must be used.
  • Gender programs also produce many subtle forms of behavioral change (such as how spouses make decisions on household expenditures), that are difficult to observe and measure.

Lesson Learned:  I’ve been working with some of my colleagues on a five-step approach to the evaluation of complex, gender-focused development programs.  It includes elements of “unpacking” and “reassembling” concepts and methods.

  • Step 1: Holistic analysis of the nature of the program and the context in which it operates.
  • Step 2:“Unpacking” programs into a set of components, each of which can be analyzed separately. This approach permits the use of conventional evaluation methods for evaluating each component
  • Step 3: Identifying the unit of analysis  for each component evaluation
  • Steps 4 and 5: “Reassembling” the findings of the individual evaluations to understand the overall effects of the program within the broader context within which it operates.

We are hoping this will assist evaluators in ensuring that gender evaluations take into consideration the complex framework within which these programs are implemented and evaluated.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Hi readers!  I am Kelly Grace and have been working in gender equity in education in Cambodia through the Lehigh University and Caring for Cambodia (CFC) partnership.

In 2014 our team in the department of Comparative and International Education at Lehigh University conducted an evaluation of the Gender Equity program at CFC schools in Siem Reap. The evaluation highlighted the importance of evaluating the impact of gender equity programs with boys in educational settings using a mixed-methods approach.  While the initial focus of our evaluation looked at the impact on girls, it became apparent that boys were aware of the program, inextricably linked to girls who participated in the program, and interested in contributing to a more gender equitable environment at school.

Another evaluation conducted by Lehigh University at the same time and in the same schools found that students who participated in the Student Council program held less traditional beliefs and attitudes on gender.  This evaluation was careful to include boys equally in the evaluation.  We hypothesize that more equitable gender attitudes and beliefs arise when girls hold leadership positions that enables them to work alongside boys in these leadership roles. These findings reinforced the findings that boys too play an important role in promoting an equitable school environment and in changing gender norms.

Hot Tip: Consider boys and men as an asset when evaluating the effectiveness of gender equity programs.   Conduct focus groups and interviews with boys who participate in gender equity programs and are connected to girls targeted in these programs to examine a potential “ripple effect” on knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

Lesson Learned:  Evaluations focusing on feminist issues should have strong methods to assess impacts on boys’ and men’s attitudes and beliefs on gender.  These methods should be seen as an integral component of the evaluation and should be well planned.

Rad Resources:

Men Engage: Provides a resource for developing a program that includes men and boys and has a monitoring and evaluation section.

Gender Responsive Pedagogy Handbook:  Includes components of gender responsive schools and was used as a key resource in our evaluation of the Caring For Cambodia Gender Equity program.

USAID Learning Lab: Provides online and collaborative resources on evaluation and monitoring with some gender related resources.

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I am Svetlana Negroustoueva, chair of the Feminist TIG and an expert in gender-responsive M&E of international development projects across sectors. I believe that M&E is an underutilized vehicle to enrich knowledge on gender and vulnerability issues. Gender-responsive M&E processes are important for ensuring that targets are met and outcomes and impacts can be assessed in relation to changes in the situation of women and girls, men and boys, and vulnerable populations.

Hot tip: When time and capacities preclude a proper gender analysis, use existing research to help identify gender and other socio-economic gaps at the outset of project design or M&E planning. Google USAID or other country or sector specific gender analysis documents, or Demographic and Health Survey data, or operations research.

Hot tip: Research gender policies of the project’s funder; most OECD donors such as USAID, DFID, Council of Europe, EU,  CIDA, and different agencies in the UN System, have those in place.  Check for evidence of their use in project documents that goes beyond the collection of sex-disaggregated data.

Lesson Learned: When developing questions, ensure that at least one evaluation (sub) question is related to advancing gender equality and/or women’s empowerment in the sectorial context. For example: Has the project developed a gender sensitive program approach to assist alternative energy project developers, businesses and consumers? Has the project reduced gender gaps in private financing advisory and mentoring services?

Hot tip: Relevant evaluation approaches and methods, such as feminist, empowerment, utilization-focused evaluations and outcome harvesting, would help surface both positive and negative unintended outcomes, and to facilitate the use of findings to serve the end beneficiaries.

Lesson Learned: Provide gender sensitivity training and explanations to team members, interviewers, data tabulators and data entry personnel. Without understanding why questions related to gender equality, the status of women and men, are there, many do not get answered in a way to provide substantial information.

Hot tip: Do not limit yourself to the provided list of stakeholders. Dig deeper to identify those who should have been involved in the project design, including sectorial gender experts and partners.

Hot Tip: Critically review an M&E Plan for presence of indicator, i.e indicators that are SMART in a gender-responsive ways to identify gender gaps and constraints, as well as opportunities. Even if a program has not developed a logic framework, you can construct a theory of change that would help identify entry points for integrating gender equality in program design and M&E processes.

Rad Resources:

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Hello! We are Ghada Jiha and Bessa Whitmore, Program Co-Chairs of the Feminist Issues in Evaluation Topical Interest Group (Feminist TIG).

The TIG was established to highlight and promote feminist approaches in the field of evaluation. Feminist approaches acknowledge multiple perspectives and realities by examining the intersections of gender, race, class and sexuality in the context of power. They offer evaluators distinct ways of thinking, ways that are participatory, inclusive, empowering, that give voice to otherwise “unheard” and “invisible” groups, and that seek to further social justice agendas.

Rad Resources: In a year celebrating the Year of Evaluation and Exemplary Evaluations in a Multicultural World, the Feminist TIG takes this opportunity to highlight select panels and presentations at AEA 2015.

  • The “L” in Feminist Approaches to MEL: A Cross-organizational Reflection on Learning from the International Development Arena. Evaluators from CARE, Oxfam and UN Women will share how each organization has pursued “learning” with a feminist lens in the context of MEL as well as discuss innovations and challenges. (Nov. 12, 1:00 – 1:45 pm)
  • Framing Evaluations for At-Risk Groups in South Asia. Presenters will share the results of a study on maternal and child health issues among 172 sex workers in Kolkata, India and the findings of a paper exploring the lived realities of 39 highly vulnerable and trafficked girls. Using child-friendly, innovative participatory methods in their work, evaluators developed a framework to address this invisible population. (Nov. 12, 1:00 -1:45 pm)
  • Enhancing investigations of women’s empowerment: The papers in this session will showcase rigorous evaluation methods used to measure impacts on gender equality and women’s empowerment in international development programs. (Nov. 12, 7:00 – 7:45 am)
  • Dealing with power issues in evaluation: a multicultural approach from Latin America. In recent years, public policies in Latin America have been developed to respond to indigenous exclusion and discrimination. These policies, however, have not addressed underlying power structures such as gender relations. Drawing on experiences from Bolivia, Chile and Guatemala, this panel will offer reflections, strategies and lessons learned on dealing with and managing power issues in evaluation. (Nov. 14, 10:45-11:30 am)
  • Skills-building workshop: Poetry as a Mode of Inquiry and Presentation. Led by Sharon Brisolara, a poet and prominent feminist evaluator, participants will explore poetry as a mode of inquiry in evaluation. The session will demonstrate multiple ways of integrating poetry into various stages of the evaluation process and provide guidance on poem selection and use. (Nov. 13, 3:30-4:15 pm)

Please join us at our TIG business meeting on Thursday, November 12, 6:20 – 7:10 pm to learn more and connect with us.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Hi, I am Rituu B Nanda and I work on M&E, community engagement, participatory action research and knowledge management. I work with multiple organisations like Institute of Social Studies Trust (ISST), Anti-Slavery International, and Constellation. I moderate an international online community of practice (CoP) – Gender and Evaluation – under ISST’s project “Engendering Policy through Evaluation.”

Sharing of ideas and experiences is key in meaningful evaluation process. The CoP is aimed to bring together all interested in evaluation- commissioners of evaluation, researchers, evaluators, implementers, government officials, and policy makers. In India, we have a strong feminist evaluation group and have realized we have much more to learn from peers. Therefore we set up an international online community. Currently we have 1733 members.

Hot tip: Numbers are important, but far more important is a vibrant community. Features like blogs, videos and photos have given us an opportunity to share.

Hot tip: Encourage the use of the discussion forum to raise queries. For instance I recently attended a session on a photo voice tool at AES Conference and was keen to learn what was the experience of members. Members responded from different parts of the world to share their experience.

By offering members different tools we are trying to engage them to become content creators and participants in the discussion around the issues they work on.

Lessons Learned:

  • When I invite people to join the community, many of them say that they do not work in the field of gender and equity. Over the years I have realised that gender and equity is about using a specific lens at every stage in evaluation. We can use any methodology or approach.
  • I would love that language should not be a barrier for us to share. We will find a way around it by using google translate.

Thus, our endeavor is to create new knowledge, gather existing knowledge, organize, share and adapt it. We believe that if we continue to nurture a space that our members value, members can become the biggest advocates of our network. Our dream is to use these platforms to influence policy on gender and equity sensitive lens in evaluation.

Rad Resource: Consider this a warm invite to join our community…sign up at http://gendereval.ning.com/

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I am Donna Mertens, an independent consultant, hired by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to advise on the evaluation of an initiative funded in all 50 states and the US territories focused on the prevention of rape. Prevention programming consisted of educational programs for perpetrators and potential perpetrators.

The prevention of rape involves a critical assessment of the systemic forces that allow rape to continue. This sets up a challenge for evaluators to deal with this sensitive topic and to make visible changes in cultural values, beliefs, and actions that are associated with prevention of rape.

The CDC asked me to conduct training for their grantees in the Rape Prevention Education program on evaluation as a transformative strategy for preventing sexual violence. I began by acknowledging the resources that are available for evaluators to help them in situations like this and by highlighting the need for cultural competency on the part of the evaluator. I emphasized the need to be aware of the full range of stakeholders and those dimensions of diversity within and across stakeholder groups that are associated with a different understanding of the meaning of such concepts as masculinity, rape, and respect.

Rad resources: CDC and UN Women have a number of resources that are relevant for evaluators who want to do a transformative mixed methods cyclical evaluation on topics related to the reduction of violence against women, as well as for evaluations specifically focused on rape prevention.

Hot Tip: I recommended the use of a transformative mixed methods cyclical design to enable evaluators to identify appropriate stakeholders, address differences in power, and create results that were viewed as credible by the stakeholders and that could serve as a basis for action to address this critical human rights issue.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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I am Aysel Vazirova, PhD, an independent gender and development consultant. Recently, I completed an evaluation of a gender-based violence (GBV) program for Syrian refugee women and girls in Jordan, Lebanon, Northern Syria and Iraq. Evaluating humanitarian responses to violence against women and girl (VAWG) presents unique challenges. GBV in humanitarian settings occurs within a myriad of other human relations that are severely affected by conflict. As traditional support networks collapse, thousands of people become more vulnerable to abuse. Studies of VAWG in humanitarian crises commonly highlight a spike in sexual and physical violence.

How do we isolate VAWG from the continuum of violence that characterizes daily life in refugee camps? Feminist approaches place VAWG within a wider social system of gender-based inequality and discrimination. It is important to examine how crisis contexts affect gender relations, where all individuals are at heightened risk of violence. Cultural and social restrictions affecting women and girls’ access to resources, mobility and decision-making opportunities can make them more vulnerable to specific forms of abuse.

Hot Tip: When collecting data, conduct separate meetings with women, men, girls, and boys to elicit the specific needs, challenges, and barriers to access to services and resources of each group. They also ensure that a diverse set of voices are heard and prevent more vocal members from dominating the dialogue.

Hot Tip: Ask concrete questions about how decisions are made. Numerical representations, such as 50% of community council/committee members are women, do not necessarily translate into real, substantive equality.

Humanitarian responses are extremely complex: they bring together hundreds of large and small organizations to respond to a rapidly dynamic situation within a “cluster” system. Clusters are organized around particular sectors, such as “health”, “shelter”, and “protection” and engage all actors working in that cluster. VAWG falls under the “protection” cluster. While intended to boost coordination and to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of humanitarian responses, the cluster system has also contributed to creating silos.

Lesson Learned: Working in silos undermines the ability of humanitarian actors to address VAWG comprehensively. The feminist approach ensures that VAWG is addressed by and across each cluster: from the layout of a refugee camp, to the location of water and sanitation facilities, the placement of light fixtures in public spaces, the distribution of food or non-food items; the confidentiality of an examination room in a local healthcare facility, the availability of emergency contraception. These factors can increase or decrease women’s risks to physical attacks, sexual exploitation, rape or harassment.

Resource: Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Actions (2015) provide detailed guidance for mainstreaming GBV prevention and mitigation in each cluster/sector.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Feminist Issues in Evaluation (FIE) TIG Week with our colleagues in the FIE Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our FIE TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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