AEA365 | A Tip-a-Day by and for Evaluators

TAG | Universal Design

Greetings! Caitlyn A. Bukaty here sharing some exciting insights with you during Disabilities and Underrepresented Populations Topical Interest Group week.

Today I want to offer a few ideas my fellow evaluators might find helpful in making their evaluations more accessible to a wide range of stakeholders. This information comes from my experience collecting feedback from young adults with intellectual disabilities who participated in a workplace problem-solving intervention, but one of my favorite features of these techniques is how helpful they are to a wide range of stakeholders! This concept is known as Universal Design, and the premise is that an option you might offer to one groups of stakeholders, for example those who have difficulty reading, actually makes accessing your evaluation materials easier for other groups, such as stakeholders for whom English is not their first language, or those with visual impairments.

Without further ado, let’s explore some ideas to help your evaluations reach for the stars in terms of accessibility!

Hot Tips:

  •  Add pictures – A well-connected photo can help stakeholders link a question to a certain event, or clarify a response.

In this example, a series of question are linked to a certain part of the intervention using a picture of the person with whom participants interacted:

Example 1

Here responses are clarified with “thumbs up” and “thumbs down” symbols

Example 2 Thumbs up

 

 

  • Go digital – Offering traditionally “print” materials in digital format opens up a universe of accessibility for stakeholders. Users can access screen reader software, text-to-speech features, and even translation applications to better understand the material. This is even more effective if materials are offered on a mobile friendly platform, mobile web access is widely reported as overtaking desktop computer use.
  • Be all ears – Prepare to accept responses from your stakeholders in a variety of creative ways. Offering stakeholders multiple options for response may mean gathering responses from those who would not have been able to participate via a single mode of response. Written or typed responses to forced choice and open ended questions may be traditional, but what if someone wants to dictate a response…can you make a scribe available in person or via telephone to support his or her participation? How about a participant wishing to record a response? This can be achieved via a voice or video recorder on many mobile devices. Depending on the question a pictorial response, such as indicating time spent on a circle graph, might even encourage respondents to participate.

Rad Resources:

  • Creative Commons Zero (CC0) Imagery – This is the name given to images free from copyrighting. In addition to taking or requesting photos specific to the topic of your evaluation there are resources linking you directly to CCO images such as Pixabay and Unsplash. Web search platforms, such as Google Images also allow you to specify reuse policies during an imae search.
  • Web-based Survey Platforms – These are useful for creating digital surveys or questionaires. Many are mobile friendly, and several platform offer free features or use. Try SurveyMonkey, SurveyGizmo, QuestionPro, or Google Forms.

Lesson Learned:

  • The idea behind today’s post is to maximize stakeholder participation by inviting them to take part in an evaluation in whatever way is most convenient and effective. To learn more about universal design geared towards materials development and response check out the Universal Design for Learning materials offered through CAST.

The American Evaluation Association is hosting the Disabilities and Underrepresented Populations TIG (DUP) Week. The contributions all week are focused on engaging DUP in your evaluation efforts. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Greetings and welcome from the Disabilities and Underrepresented Populations TIG week.  We are June Gothberg, Chair and Caitlyn Bukaty, Program Chair.  This week we have a strong line up of great resources, tips, and lessons learned for engaging typically underrepresented population in evaluation efforts.

You might have noticed that we changed our name from Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations to Disabilities and Underrepresented Populations and may be wondering why.  It came to our attention during 2016 that sever of our members felt our previous name was inappropriate and had the potential to be offensive.  Historically, a little under 50% of our TIGs presentations represent people with disabilities, the rest are a diverse group ranging from migrants to teen parents.  The following Wordle shows the categorical information of presentations our TIGs presentation

Categories represented by the Disabilities and Underrepresented Populations presentations from 1989-2016

TIG members felt that the use of vulnerable in our name set up a negative and in some cases offensive label to the populations we represent.  Thus, after discussion, communications, and coming to consensus we proposed to the AEA board that our name be changed to Disabilities and Underrepresented Populations.

Lessons Learned:

  • Words are important! Labels are even more important!
  • Words can hurt or empower, it’s up to you.
  • Language affects attitudes and attitudes affect actions.

Hot Tips:

  • If we are to be effective evaluators we need to pay attention to the words we use in written and verbal communication.
  • Always put people first, labels last. For example, student with a disability, man with autism, woman with dyslexia.

The nearly yearlong name change process reminded of the lengthy campaign to rid federal policy and documents of the R-word.  If you happened to miss the Spread the Word to End the Word Campaign, there are several great video and other resources at r-word.org.

High School YouTube video

YouTube Video – Spread the Word to End the Word

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTGo_dp_S-k&feature=youtu.be

Bill S. 2781 put into federal law, Rosa’s Law, which takes its name and inspiration for 9-year-old Rosa Marcellino, removes the terms “mental retardation” and “mentally retarded” from federal health, education and labor policy and replaces them with people first language “individual with an intellectual disability” and “intellectual disability.” The signing of Rosa’s Law is a significant milestone in establishing dignity, inclusion and respect for all people with intellectual disabilities.

So, what’s in a name?  Maybe more than you think!

 

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I’m Pat Campbell, president of Campbell-Kibler Associates, Inc.  Under NSF funding, Eric Jolly, president of the Science Museum of  Minnesota and I, with the help of a lot of friends, have been generating research-based tips, such as those below, to improve the accuracy of data collection, the quality of the analysis and the appropriateness of the data collected over diverse populations.

Hot Tips:

  • Ask for demographic information ONLY at the end of measures. There may be exceptions in cases for people with disabilities who will need accommodations in order to complete the measures.
  • Have participants define their own race/ethnicity and disability status rather than having the identification done by data collectors or project/program staff.  If a standard set of categories for race/ethnicity and/or disability is used, also, in an open-ended question, ask participants to indicate their own race/ethnicity and disability status.
  • Have members of the target population review affective and psychosocial measures for clarity. Ask them what concepts they think are being measured. If what is being measured is obvious and there are sex, race, or disability stereotypes associated with the concepts, consider using a less obvious measure if an equally valid measure is available.
  • Be aware that there can be heterogeneity within subgroups. For example, while people who are visually impaired, hearing impaired, and learning disabled are all classified as having disabilities, the differences among them are very large and it might be appropriate to disaggregate by different categories of disability.
  • When race/ethnicity, gender, or disability status is used as an independent variable, specify the reason for its use and include the reason in documentation of the results.

Lessons Learned:

  • All populations are diverse:  The diversity may be in terms of race, gender, ethnicity, age, geographic location, education, income, disability status, veteran status….  It may be visible or invisible. Most likely in every group there is a multiplicity of diversities.  High quality evaluations need to pay attention to the diversity of all populations being served.
  • Each individual is diverse.  As individuals, we have many demographic characteristics including our race, gender, ethnicity, age, geographic location, education, income, disability status, veteran status….  Rather than focusing on only one demographic category, high quality evaluations need to determine which categories are integral to the evaluation and focus on them.

Rad Resources:

  • Universal Design for Evaluation Checklist, 4th Edition.  The title, says it all.  Jennifer  Sullivan-Sulewski, & June Gothberg have developed a short planning tool that helps evaluators include people of all ages and all abilities in evaluations.
  • As soon as it goes live, we hope our website, Beyond Rigor will be another rad resource.  Let me know (Campbell@campbell-kibler.com) if you would like to be notified when that happens.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG (DOVP) Week. The contributions all week come from DOVP members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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Greetings this is June Gothberg, Senior Researcher at Western Michigan University.  A few years ago, I became involved with AEA’s Potent Presentations Initiative and worked with Stephanie Evergreen to include universal design principles.  I currently hold a position on the p2i advisory board.  What I didn’t anticipate when I started working with the group is how much p2i would change my presentation worldview.  At conferences or watching any presenter, I find myself reflecting on key p2i principles.  I’ll say things like, “too many bullets” or “that picture doesn’t bleed off the page.” Today, I thought I’d share my own lessons learned.

Lessons Learned:

Evaluators need presentation skills.  As professional evaluators we are often called upon to provide an overview of evaluation results.  Our presentation skills and message can directly impact an organization’s evaluation use.

Often, you don’t know what you don’t know.  I think we’ve all sat through mind numbing presentations.  I’ve always blamed it on a boring speaker with poor delivery.  What I didn’t know was to create potent presentations, delivery is just one component.  Potent presenters need to attend to:

  • Message
  • Design
  • Delivery

I highly recommend these two p2i tools: Presentation Assessment Rubric and The Messaging Model

If you are unsure where to begin, start with eliminating bullets.   As a past classroom teacher, this was difficult for me.  I thought if I didn’t put my content in bullets, the students wouldn’t learn what I intended.  The problem with bulletsis your audience can read your slides faster than you can read it to them. When you use bullet points, you risk reducing your presentation to a read-aloud session (BORING!).  Research shows that text heavy slides not only correlate with boring presentations, but also reduce learning.  Cognitive researcher Chris Atherton found “sparse slides” increased memory and attention.

If I don’t give bullet points then how will they remember what I said? 

  • Find an image to represent your point.
  • If you feel you must use bullets, use only one per slide. Here is an example from my own slide deck:
p2i example

p2i example

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Give handouts.  One thing I’ve used from the field of Universal Design (UD) is the use of handouts with key points.  For your audience members with visual or hearing challenges, this increases their ability to participate.  It also gives your whole audience a space to take notes and follow along with key points without distracting from the presenter.

The devil is in the details and details take time.  Through our work with p2i we’ve found you need to begin at least three months in advance to create potent presentations.  A good planning tool with timeline for preparing presentations is the p2i Presentation Preparation Checklist.

Ensure your presentations are accessible to all.  For ideas to include all people please refer to Creating Presentations Potent for All.

Rad Resources:

Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org . aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Hi! I am Don Glass an independent education and evaluation consultant, and a former UDL Fellow at Boston College and CAST. Over the past several years I have been interested in how we can be as inclusive as possible in the gathering and analysis of data, as well as in the sharing and use of evaluation findings. Like our colleagues Jennifer Sulewski and June Gothberg, I am interested in applying Universal Design to evaluation for the purpose of removing barriers, providing access and flexibility, and promoting engagement, understanding, and use for a wide range of stakeholders.

To do so, we are exploring the use of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) as a translational framework for guiding the design and evaluation of curriculum, programs, and materials. The framework moves beyond accessibility to include learning design. UDL provides a research-supported conceptual framework, as well as a well-structured heuristic for guiding inclusive design and evaluation decision-making. UDL prompts for the design of multiple, flexible options to address variability and supports expert learning across the affective, recognition, and strategic neural networks of the brain. I would locate the use of the UDL framework in the transformative evaluation paradigm, and argue that it prompts for evaluation design that aligns with many of the principles of Empowerment Evaluation.

UDL Evaluation

Hot Tips:

  • Monitor and evaluate outcomes for knowledge, use, AND values. We typically evaluate participant knowledge and use of an intervention or program. Consider measuring and responding to outcomes that also monitor affect and engagement- initial interest, sustained motivation, self-regulation, relevance, and value to the stakeholders.
  • Provide flexible options for data collection and sharing. The same paper survey may not be accessible or appropriate for everyone. Remove physical, cognitive, cultural, and language barriers in your instrument and report design. Provide options for vocabulary, language, and comprehension supports. Present information in multiple ways (i.e., diagrams, stories, tables, explanatory text).
  • Support expert learning strategies. Build capacity for executive functions and self-regulation that have value and use beyond the evaluation. Provide the reflective and evaluative strategies for goal-setting and planning, managing information, and acting on formative feedback. Support the development of expert practitioners and expert learning organizations!

Rad Resources

  • UDL Guidelines. A digital version of the UDL Guidelines with comprehension supports, examples, resources, and supportive research evidence.
  • UDL AA-AAS Evaluation Tool. An interactive online tool that applies UDL to the design and administration of state alternate assessments based on alternate academic achievement standards.
  • UDL Connect. A ning group on the topic of applying UDL to evaluation.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG (DOVP) Week. The contributions all week come from DOVP members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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Greeting, I am June Gothberg, Senior Researcher at Western Michigan University. You may also recognize me as the intern Lead Curator for aea365. My AEA internship is ending this month and I will be passing the torch to another. Look for forthcoming details from Susan Kistler.

My colleague, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski and I co-chair the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG. We also co-authored the Universal Design for Evaluation (UDE) Checklist to assist evaluators to include individuals authentically in the evaluation process, people of all ages and abilities. The checklist is a tool for program evaluators who design, develop, implement, and disseminate evaluations. Today’s post focuses on numbers two and four of the checklist.

Lessons Learned:

  • Most evaluators intend to include everyone in the evaluation process.
  • In real life design and implementation, many evaluators fail to anticipate the needs of the diverse individuals important to the evaluation.

Hot Tips:

  • Design Evaluation using UDE Principle 2: Flexibility in Use. Evaluations that demonstrate flexibility in use accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. The evaluation plan will show evidence of preparation to:
    • Communicate with participants of diverse abilities, communication styles, and cultural backgrounds. (e.g., second language interpreters, sign language interpreters, readers, large text, and Braille)
    • Address individual needs.
    • Provide alternate data collection tools based on communication preferences and needs. (e.g., written, oral, using smart technology, observation)
    • Include extra time for participants with slower processing or language barriers.
    • Include extra time to observe cultural practices.
  • Design Evaluation using UDE Principle 4: Perceptible Information. The evaluation design that provides perceptible information will communicate necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities.
    • Sensory issues are addressed. (lower lighting, no flickering florescent lights, minimal noise, seating away from doors and windows, quiet ‘fidget’ toys – think stress ball)
    • Multiple media options are used to present information.
    • All printed publications are available immediately or in a timely manner in alternate formats2.
    • A statement is included in all materials about procedures for requesting accommodations or assistance.
    • Online materials adhere to web accessibility standards.

Rad Resources:

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG (DOVP) Week. The contributions all week come from DOVP members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.e 

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I am David J. Bernstein, and I am a Senior Study Director with Westat, an employee-owned research and evaluation company in Rockville, Maryland. I was an inaugural member of AEA, and was the founder and first Chair of the Government Evaluation Topical Interest Group.

Westat was hired by the U.S. Department of Education’s Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) to conduct an evaluation of the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults (HKNC). HKNC is a national rehabilitation program serving youth and adults who are deaf-blind founded by an Act of Congress in 1967, and operates under a grant from RSA, which is HKNC’s largest funding source.

The Westat evaluation was the first evaluation of HKNC in over 20 years, although HKNC submits performance measures and annual reports to RSA. RSA wanted to make sure that the evaluation included interviews with Deaf-Blind individuals who had taken vocational rehabilitation and independent living courses on the HKNC campus in Sands Point, New York. After meeting with HKNC management and teaching staff, it became clear that communication issues would be a challenge given the myriad of ways that Deaf-Blind individuals communicate. Westat and RSA agreed that in-person interviews with Deaf-Blind individuals would help keep the interviews simple, intuitive, and make sure that this critical stakeholder group was comfortable and willing to participate.

Hot Tips:

  • Make use of gatekeepers and experts-in-residence. Principle Three encourages simple and intuitive design of materials to address users’ level of experience and language skills. For the HKNC Evaluation, interview guides went through multiple reviews, including review by experts in Deaf-Blind communication not associated with HKNC. Ultimately, it was HKNC staff that provided a critical final review to simplify the instruments since HKNC was familiar with the wide variety of communication skills of their former students.
  • Plan ahead in regards to location and communication. Principle Seven calls for appropriate space to make anyone involved in data collection comfortable, including transportation accessibility and provision of interpreters, if needed. For the HKNC evaluation, interview participants were randomly selected who were within a reasonable distance of locations near HKNC regional offices. Westat worked with HKNC partners and HKNC regional representatives with whom interviewees were familiar. In the Los Angeles area, we brought the interviews to the interviewees, selecting locations that were as close as possible to where former HKNC students lived. Most importantly, Westat worked with HKNC to identify the Deaf-Blind individuals’ communication abilities and preferences, and had two interpreters on site for interviews. In one case we used a participant’s iPad with large print enabled to communicate interview questions.

Resource:

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG (DOVP) Week. The contributions all week come from DOVP members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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My name is John Kramer and I am currently a Research Fellow at the Institute for Community Inclusion, University of Massachusetts Boston. My work focuses on research and evaluation of employment outcomes of people with disabilities, participatory research, and aging issues for families of people with disabilities. I am a new member of the American Evaluation Association.

Tip:

  • Universal Design Principle 3 is “simple and intuitive”. Incorporating clear, simple language in writing while also providing concrete, every day examples improves access in two ways:
  1. it clarifies your intention as a writer and helps you focus on the basic idea you are trying to convey
  2. it allows for more stakeholder access and participation.

Hot tips:

  • Use plain language. This means substituting simpler words for more complex ones. It also means writing sentences that are free of excessive subordination. Also, try to avoid unnecessary modifiers like “really, totally, very, only, quite,” which may interfere with clarity.
  • Use concrete, accessible examples including images when helpful. Try to think of examples to illustrate your writing that are easy to picture and relate to. Using images is a good approach as well when appropriate.
  • Use clear, parallel examples in your writing. For instance, if you frame an example as noun, verb, recipient noun, then make sure all your examples use the same order of presentation.

Rad Resources

There are many good resources for how to incorporate plain language and images into your work. A few especially helpful ones around the web are:

  • Plainlanguage.gov -A website by the United States Federal government that gives some useful strategies and examples in using plain language.
  • Grammar Girl -A website that provides some basic tips and tricks to clarify your writing. Not for cognitive access per se, but elements can be useful in UD.
  • Picture Planner – A website that illustrates an example of how pictures can be used to facilitate cognitive access.
  • Creative Commons -Here you can find free pictures that you can use, often with attribution, to illustrate your work and writing.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG (DOVP) Week. The contributions all week come from DOVP members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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My name is Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Research Associate at the Institute for Community Inclusion, University of Massachusetts Boston. Most of my research and evaluation work has focused on improving employment and postsecondary education outcomes for people with disabilities. I am co-chair of AEA’s Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations (DOVP) TIG and co-author of the Universal Design for Evaluation Checklist. I have also had the pleasure of serving as curator for the DOVP Week.

There are two major Universal Design schools: one is broadly applied and the other specifically to curriculum and learning. Both can help inform evaluators and ensure accessibility for all evaluation participants. Each of this week’s posts focuses in on the concepts of Universal Design (UD)or Universal Design for Learning (UDL).

Hot Tip:

  1. Equitable Use
  2. Flexibility in Use
  3. Simple and Intuitive Use
  4. Perceptible Information
  5. Tolerance for Error
  6. Low Physical Effort
  7. Size and Space for Approach and Use
  1. Multiple Means of Representation
  2. Multiple Means of Action and Expression
  3. Multiple Means of Engagement

Lesson Learned:

  • Evaluation recruitment materials and informed consent must be accessible for authentic and ethical participation. In our Universal Design for Evaluation checklist, we demonstrate the importance of Principle 1: equitable use, particularly as it applies to the informed consent process. In my work with people with intellectual/developmental disabilities, I’ve learned how important it is to create recruitment and informed consent materials that are designed to be used and understood by all. For example, in an early project I had separate consent forms for different aspects of the project, and the need to sign multiple forms was confusing for participants. I learned to explain all the expectations and rights of participants in one simple form instead.  
  • Here is an example of such a consent form:

Universally Designed Informed Consent

  • It is also essential when working with this population to understand whether the participants are under someone else’s guardianship; if they are, consent must be obtained from the guardian and assent from the individual.

In the posts to follow, John Kramer discusses how to apply UD Principle 3 to increase access and stakeholder participation. David Bernstein describes applying Principles 3 and 7 to an evaluation involving Deaf-Blind program participants. June Gothberg demonstrates Principles 2 and 4 on flexible and perceptible information. Bob Hughes provides tips on evaluating UDL projects and Don Glass explores the use of UDL to guide the design and evaluation of curriculum, programs, and materials.

Rad Resource:

  • Looking for ideas on how to make your project more accessible to people of all backgrounds and abilities? The Universal Design for Evaluation Checklist is a resource for applying the seven principles of Universal Design to evaluation.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG (DOVP) Week. The contributions all week come from DOVP members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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Chad Green here on the utility of Costa and Garmston’s maturing outcomes map from yesterday’s post.

If you revisit this colorful framework, you will notice that the nested concepts form a learning continuum, ranging from concrete to abstract, similar to the outcomes in a logic model.  However, if you dabble in cognitive neuroscience like myself, you may find this ordering of outcomes counterintuitive given the anatomical structure of the human brain. To correct for this minor oversight, all you need to do is invert the continuum such that the states of mind (i.e., empowerment outcomes) occupy the center of the model. According to my experience, this simple inversion of the continuum creates a “lensing” effect, if you will, that magnifies the valuing of the outcomes on the outer rings.

Hot Tip: Thinking in terms of nested outcome models has been very useful for my evaluation work.  For example, in order to make sense of my role as PreK-12 Program Co-chair, I created this earth metaphor as an adaptation of Alkin and Christie’s (2004) evaluation theory tree.  In theory, evaluators may span the layers of this conceptual framework in three ways: deductively, inductively, or transducively (both inside and outside).

  • Theories of change (Inner core): Provide evaluators with a central understanding of how growth and transformation occur within the evaluand across cultures, time, and space.
  • Values and principles in evaluation (Outer core): Determine the purpose of human valuing (i.e., of evidence, quality, inquiry, equity, social justice) within the context of the evaluator’s work.
  • Use for decision making and change (Mantle): Provide evaluators with roles, procedures, and perspectives to help users of evaluation information make decisions and instill change in more efficient or engaging ways.
  • Methods of evaluation research (Upper mantle): Serve as general practices in knowledge construction that emanate from and build upon the evaluator’s theories of change, values, and roles.
  • Domain knowledge (Crust): Specify subject matter expertise evaluators should possess for their line of work.

Rad Resources: Check out this video on the golden circle, a nested model developed by Simon Sinek.  Sinek’s framework has parallels in Universal Design for Learning, an approach to teaching that gives all individuals equal opportunities to learn.

Hot Tip: Consider this quote by Hegel (1817), author of The Science of Logic, in which he describes the nested nature of philosophy itself: “Each of the parts of philosophy is a philosophical whole, a circle rounded and complete in itself. … The single circle, because it is a real totality, bursts through the limits imposed by its special medium, and gives rise to a wider circle. The whole of philosophy in this way resembles a circle of circles.”

The American Evaluation Association is Educational Evaluation Week with our colleagues in the PreK-12 Educational Evaluation AEA Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our EdEval TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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