AEA365 | A Tip-a-Day by and for Evaluators

TAG | cultural competence statement

Hi! We are Nicole Robinson, Emily Connors, Kate Westaby, Tiffine Cobb, and Elise Ahn and we’re board members of ¡Milwaukee Evaluation! Inc., the Wisconsin statewide AEA affiliate. As an affiliate and professional development collaborative of Wisconsin-based evaluators, we have three goals:

  • To promote the science of evaluation
  • Provide networking and capacity building opportunities
  • Develop a pipeline of evaluators from underrepresented groups

In the past few years we have focused on field building initiatives centered around building the capacity of evaluators to incorporate culturally responsive evaluation (CRE) and social justice into their practice. We see this goal as paramount to create a thriving field ready to respond to the evaluation needs of a multicultural world. This past year, during our flagship event, the Social Justice & Evaluation conference, is where we promoted this work. We provided CRE 101 sessions in addition to sessions helping evaluators address “isms” during the evaluation process from start to finish, how to assess what the current political climate can impact evaluation and the people we serve, or how social justice can be infused into practices such as results-based accountability.

Lessons Learned:

We recently administered a survey to Wisconsin evaluators and asked them about how much they use CRE. The full results will be shared in the future, but we can share a couple points for discussion. For example, 57% of evaluators who responded to the survey have never reviewed AEA’s statement on cultural competence and 37% had no formal training on cultural competence. The open-ended responses provided a richer picture of evaluation in Wisconsin. While we are still analyzing this data, we wanted to share one quote that captures the complexity of this discussion, linking the absence of CRE to stagnant outcomes among other areas:

“It is all about power and money. The same folks are getting the same grants or contracts and conduct evaluations in the same way. It isn’t rocket science why some of the same chronic outcomes and poor quality of life has not changed. Evaluation and research studies need to be built differently by different people. If we keep producing basically the same monolithic group of academics how will things ever change? This is embedded in the systems and institutions of education, policy, procurement, political, and monetary practices. People who educate the next generation of academics and award contracts, grants, keynotes, or presidential sessions MUST be held accountable for structurally ensuring and requiring diversity in curricular content, human resources, funding priorities, contract/grant awards, keynotes, publications, etc. or things won’t change.”

Stayed tuned for more this week from our Wisconsin evaluators!

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating ¡Milwaukee Evaluation! Week with our colleagues in the Wisconsin statewide AEA Affiliate. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our ¡Milwaukee Evaluation! members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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This is part of a two-week series honoring our living evaluation pioneers in conjunction with Labor Day in the USA (September 5).

¡Saludos! Greetings! I am Lisa Aponte-Soto, National Program Deputy Director of RWJF New Connections and Director at Equal Measure, AEA GEDI alumna, and LA RED TIG Chair.

Why I chose to honor this evaluator:

LA RED TIG honors Arthur (Art) E. Hernandez, PhD for his leadership in culturally responsive evaluation (CRE) practices and commitment to diversifying the field.

Art Hernandez was Professor and Dean at Texas A&M University Corpus Christi, and Director of the AEA Minority Serving Institution (MSI) initiative. He has recently transitioned to the University of the Incarnate Word. Art has rooted his career in his native Texas, yet his contributions span across the nation.

His first evaluation experience was with a project for the Texas school district. The program staff viewed him as a researcher and saw no distinction between research and evaluation. Art began expanding his scope of work to different settings. Before long, he became a respected evaluator valued for his bilingual and bicultural lens. However, it wasn’t until he participated in the 2009 MSI cohort that he realized that he was conducting formal evaluation.

Art attributes MSI and similar traineeships for building his evaluation methodology skills. Equally, he accredits his lived experience and his perspective as a Latino as being critical to the quality of evaluation. His ethnic background and CRE training have also influenced his attention to cultural context in the work.

Art refers to culturally responsive evaluation (CRE) as an essential technical and quality-driven inherent value for all evaluation practice. And, he applauds AEA for being at the forefront of integrating cultural awareness and responsiveness in the field.

He also acknowledges the importance of AEA’s community of learning fostered through Annual Meetings and Summer Institutes, where he has been able to engage and learn with seasoned evaluators. In turn, Art values giving back to AEA.

A lifetime educator, Art is passionate about mentoring the next generation of culturally responsive evaluators. When invited to lead the MSI Program in 2011, he didn’t hesitate and continues in this role

As an active AEA member, Art is a founding member of LA RED, has served various TIGs, and most notably has contributed to the AEA Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Currently, he is working on an evaluation capacity building recipe book for community based organizations.

Rad Resources: Listen to his recent Coffee Break session, The Rise of Latinx presence, perceptions and contributions to notions of CRE and AEA.

Meet Art and other Latinx pioneers at Evaluation 2016, Senior Latin@ Evaluators Reflections on Culturally Responsive Evaluation + Design.

Get Involved: To learn more about evaluation theory and practice by, for and with Latinx communities join LA RED by emailing lared.tig@gmail.com.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating Labor Day Week in Evaluation: Honoring Evaluation’s Living Pioneers. The contributions this week are tributes to our living evaluation pioneers who have made important contributions to our field and even positive impacts on our careers as evaluators. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org . aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Greetings, I am June Gothberg, the Chair of the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG. We have been honored to be included in aea365 and hope that you have gained in your knowledge and expanded your evaluator toolbox this week.

I would like to wrap up our week with the broad topic of inclusive evaluation. I was introduced to the term in the late 90s by our past AEA President, Donna Mertens. In her 1999 AJE article, she stated “Inclusive evaluation has the potential to contribute to an enhanced ability to assert truth, objectivity, credibility, validity, and rigor… based on a review of world history, certain groups have been systematically excluded from having meaningful participation in the design, implementation, and use of evaluations that impact them”. It’s my belief that in order for evaluators to provide unbiased, accurate, and useful results, they must attend to those in the margins.

Lessons Learned and Hot Tips:

  1. Increasing participation from marginalized populations increases evaluation validity and reliability. Think about it, without the voices of all, how do we make recommendations for all?
  2. Marginalized populations may include more than you know. In addition to people with mental or physical disabilities there are: addicts, historically oppressed, homeless, LGBTQ, low-income, low-literate, the aging, those from the non-dominate culture, trauma survivors, veterans, and women and girls.
  3. Persons from marginalized or vulnerable groups may be hard to identify. Many vulnerabilities are invisible. For example, people with learning disabilities, veterans with PSTD, people that have experienced abuse, or people with mental health issues.
  4. Learn the language. Professions outside evaluation are also tackling this issue but may use differing terms: education uses inclusion, mainstreaming, least restrictive environment, employers tend to use the terms integrated and equal access; community planners and agencies use terms like independent, universal, accessible, and livable.
  5. Accommodations tend to benefit more than the marginalized person. I recently attended a MIhiddentalent.org conference where employers discussed the advantages of diverse work populations. On a large panel of the nation’s top employers, every one of them said the benefits to all employees far exceeded the cost of accommodating employees.

Rad Resources:

  1. AEA’s Cultural Competency Statement http://bit.ly/AEACC
  2. Center for Culturally Responsive Evaluation and Assessment (CREA) http://bit.ly/CREAIL
  3. Mertens, D.M. (2009). Transformative research and evaluation. New York: Guilford Press. http://bit.ly/DMTrans
  4. Thurston & Jenson (2014). Merging Trauma-Informed and Universal Design Principles http://bit.ly/TIUDE

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating the Disabilities and Other Vulnerable Populations TIG (DOVP) Week. The contributions all week come from DOVP members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org . aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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Hi, I’m Dominica McBride, President of The HELP Institute, Inc. and a member of the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group. I also have my PhD in Counseling Psychology and have provided psychotherapy. This tip focuses on the affective and psychological side of cultural competence in everyday evaluation practice.

Culturally competent evaluation practice requires self-awareness and self-reflection. So much of our evaluation practice is guided by our decisions. It would be nice to think that our decisions are mostly driven by our frontal lobes – the seat of deliberation and reasoning; however, most of our choices are influenced by our subconscious mind, as discovered through recent neuroscience research. Our subconscious mind (influenced by the limbic part of our brains also known as the emotional brain) is constituted of our experiences, exposures, and emotions. Our experiences literally shape the wiring of our brains and repeated exposures to similar messages connect our brain cells, which leads to more automatic thoughts. So, if someone is exposed to repeated messages depicting Muslims as terrorists, for example, our brains begin to incorporate this. These thoughts become a part of us, even subconsciously, and can negatively affect our interactions and decisions in working with the group, especially in the absence of antithetical experiences. Microaggressions, which are unintentional slights towards a person related to their group affiliation, can begin to develop. They can also show up in interactions and decision making within an evaluation, like forgetting or overlooking the inclusion of a certain group in research or evaluation design. For example, a 21st Century study “found” a lack of facial recognition abilities in African-Americans compared to Euro-Americans. However, due to cultural incompetence, the participants were only shown Caucasian faces. When corrected with cultural competence, there was no difference.

The Statement states “cultural competence is a stance taken toward culture” and “culturally competent evaluators respect the cultures represented in the evaluation.” To be culturally competent and value and respect culture and different communities, the Statement asserts that we must challenge our stereotypes and ameliorate our biases. We have to examine and address the biases hidden in our subconscious that influence our decision making, interactions with others, and evaluation practice.

Hot Tips:

  • Take the Implicit Association Test. This test will inform you of some of your implicit biases.
  •  Examine your biases through journaling and deliberately find and create experiences that counter your stereotypes and make conscious note of experiences that do not support them.

Rad Resources:

  • Blink is a good book that describes our subconscious mind and its influences on decision-making and interactions with others
  • Crash is a provocative movie graphically demonstrating explicit and implicit biases and their effects on others

The American Evaluation Association will be celebrating Cultural Competence Week. The contributions all this week come from the Cultural Competence committee. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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Hello, I’m Jori Hall, assistant professor at the University of Georgia and a member of the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group. This tip is focused on integrating cultural competence into everyday practice through values-engagement.

Tips:

  • As suggested in the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation, all evaluation practice and evaluands are situated in and influenced by cultural norms, values, and various ways of knowing. Values-engagement acknowledges these influences and attempts to be responsive to the dynamic interaction between the values reflected in evaluation practice and the evaluand. That is, values-engaged evaluators understand that evaluation practice promotes values, and that these values must respectfully engage stakeholders’ values.
  • Values-engagement is not a specific strategy or a set of required methods; rather, it is a commitment to culturally responsive evaluation. While there is more than one way to be values-engaged, the commitment to culturally responsive, values-engagement suggested here involves the evaluator prioritizing values of inclusion and equity in everyday practice. Inclusion refers to engaging and describing the plurality of stakeholders’ values, perspectives, and concerns, focusing on the least well served in a particular context. Equity refers to how well and to what extent the evaluand is attending to stakeholder groups (i.e., access, participation, etc.) in the context. Because values-engagement advocates inclusiveness and the equitable treatment of stakeholders, it supports the goals of the Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation.
  • Values-engagement can be integrated throughout the life cycle of an evaluation, and enacted through generating evaluation questions, data, and dialogues related to the ways in which the evaluand is attending to the cultural values of the groups represented in the context. To learn more about values-engagement, its connection to cultural competence, and how evaluators can practically enact its commitments in different evaluation contexts, begin with the resources provided below!

Rad resources:

The American Evaluation Association will be celebrating Cultural Competence Week. The contributions all this week come from the Cultural Competence committee. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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I’m Karen Anderson, AEA’s Diversity Coordinator Intern, and in this role I support AEA’s diversity programs, TIGs, and the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group.

The baton has been passed from the Cultural Competence in Evaluation Task Force, the Statement developers, to the Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group to translate the Statement from paper to practice. One strategy for its broader dissemination and use is integrating the Statement into the policies and procedures of organizations that conduct and commission evaluations.

The AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation has several core concepts, including the implications culture has for all phases of evaluation, including staffing of evaluation efforts and ensuring that members of the evaluation team collectively demonstrate cultural competence in the context for each evaluation. How does an evaluation practitioner or commissioner begin to do this?

Rad Resource:

Hot Tips:

  • Share the Statement and supplemental resources like Building Culturally Competent Organizations, Key Components to a Culturally Competent System, and It All Starts At The Front Desk with human resources and decision makers in organizations. Recommend the development of a cultural competence committee to monitor and make recommendations for policy revision, program development, and evaluation.
  • Include cultural competence language in the development and response to requests for proposals (RFPs). Check out this post How to Spot a Lip Service Approach to Culturally Responsive Evaluation from Patricia Rogers and Jane Davison’s Genuine Evaluation blog for tips on pointing out when a client may not be walking the walk in relation to culture and program development, theory, and evaluation.
  • If you or other employees at your organization belong to an AEA affiliate, organize an event at your office around the theory or practical applications of the Statement. The Atlanta Area AEA affiliate group hosted one recently, Taking a Stance Toward Culture: Cultural Competence in Evaluation. Reflections from the event can be found in the AEA Newsletter diversity article.
  • Set up a series of lunch and learns to begin having dialogue with colleague to increase awareness and to encourage relationship building, or start a book club discussion using the Statement, and branch out to other reading material to light the spark for cultural competence in evaluation.

The American Evaluation Association will be celebrating Cultural Competence Week. The contributions all this week come from the Cultural Competence committee. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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Hello! We’re Tamera Bertrand Jones, Assistant Professor of Higher Education at Florida State University, Osman Ozturgut, Assistant Professor of Education at the University of the Incarnate World, and Leah Neubauer is the Associate Director of the Master of Public Health Program at DePaul University.

Evaluators enter the field from different academic backgrounds and possess varying levels of professional expertise. Evaluation knowledge can come from academic preparation, on the job training, and professional development.  The AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation is ripe for use in teaching evaluation. We asked national and international evaluation leaders to provide tips on ways to incorporate the tenets of culturally competent evaluation in teaching evaluation.

Tip #1: Read the statement and dissect it.   Learners can read the Statement and reflect individually and collectively about what the statement means in their specific contexts. Learners could journal their responses to questions like: What are the statement’s strengths and weaknesses? What is missing from the statement? How could the statement be applied in various programs? Instructors could use case studies to pose different scenarios and facilitate a discussion of learners’ various perspectives on solutions relevant to specific contexts.

Tip #2: Determine the learner’s location.  The learner’s location is one’s own cultural position, awareness of others’ positions, and the ability to interact genuinely and respectfully with others. The learner must also assess their technical ability and interpersonal skills.  Once an evaluator is able to adequately assess themselves, they can begin to draw a complete picture of how their abilities may match up different contexts.

Tip #3: Incorporate experiential opportunities.  The old adage “Practice makes perfect” is certainly true when it comes to evaluation.  Evaluation is a hands-on field and the more practice evaluators have in honing their craft, the better equipped they will be for future evaluations.

Tip #4: Encourage the development of mentoring relationships.  One way evaluators improve their competence is by working with other evaluators.  Encouraging learners to build coalitions with other evaluators who are different than themselves, who work in different contexts, or who work with different populations. Others’ personal stories and experiences help us to learn hard lessons without the sting of the actual experience.

RAD Resources:

The American Evaluation Association will be celebrating Cultural Competence Week. The contributions all this week come from the Cultural Competence committee. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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Hi, my name is Cindy Crusto, associate professor, Yale School of Medicine, and chair of the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group.  I am writing on behalf of the Working Group to inform you of the purpose of the Working Group and to introduce this week’s aea365 series.

As you may recall, the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation was approved by the general AEA membership in April 2011. The Statement affirms the significance of cultural competence in evaluation and identifies essential practices for cultural competence. The Statement was, by design, not a “how to” guide. Thus, the translation of concepts articulated in the Statement into practice remains an important next step.  A dissemination working group, an AEA operational group comprised of AEA members, was convened to engage in developing and executing dissemination strategies, translation, and maintenance plans for the Statement. An Advisory Group consults on idea generation, vetting, review, and dissemination assistance.

The Dissemination Working Group identified 10 key activities on which it will concentrate over the next 1.5 years.  One activity is to contribute to the aea365 series two times this year.  This first series focuses on cultural competence more generally and on the Statement.  The second aea365 series later this year will highlight themes emerging from proposed working group-sponsored sessions at the upcoming AEA conference.

This week we have an exciting lineup!  Tamara Bertrand-Jones and Osman Özturgut discuss ways that you can incorporate the tenets of culturally competent evaluation and the Statement into your AEA conference presentation, and Leah Neubauer adds to the discussion with teaching. Karen Anderson writes about integrating the Statement and its concepts into organizations that conduct and commission evaluations. She provides tips and resources for assessing and building culturally competent organizations. Jori Hall writes about integrating cultural competence into everyday evaluation practice through a values-engaged approach. She provides examples from previous evaluation projects that explore the practical application of values-engagement strategies. Dominica McBride writes our biases and perspectives influencing decision-making in everyday practice and the challenges this causes in implementing cultural competence. She provides tips on how to recognize and move through these biases to apply the wisdom of the Statement with greater ease.

Hot Tip: The concepts and essential practices presented in the Statement can be applied regardless of the type of evaluation (process, outcome, impact, cost, personnel, product), setting in which the evaluation is engaged (government, academia, business, community, education, etc.), or type of evaluation work (policy, practice, teaching, etc.) conducted.

Rad Resources:

The American Evaluation Association will be celebrating Cultural Competence Week. The contributions all this week come from the Cultural Competence committee. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluator.

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I’m Susan Kistler, the American Evaluation Association’s Executive Director, and aea365 regular Saturday contributor. Today is a big day. Well actually, yesterday was a big day, but right now is the morning after when we get to reflect on a night to remember. We frittered away the evening, sharing and chatting away the hours until the clock struck midnight and suddenly all had to come to an end.

At midnight Eastern Time in the United States, on Friday, March 16, the door closed on the opportunity to submit proposals for Evaluation 2012.

Today is definitely a holiday of sorts. I am sending confirmations for the proposals and get to take a quick look at each to check for completeness. It is like Thanksgiving – look at the bounty before us and the wonderful people coming together to strengthen and celebrate our field! It is like Christmas – look at the sessions, each one a present that I get to be the very first top open and then wrap back up for our peer reviewers! I am very lucky person indeed to be part of this community.

Lessons Learned: A few quick observations, then back to confirmations.

  • I wrote back in February on our two new session formats and both have proven popular. We have over 40 Brown Bag Idea Exchange and over 60 Ignite proposals.
  • It’s exciting to see the range of sessions talking about issues of cultural competence and drawing on AEA’s 2011 release of the Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation. I hope to take the opportunity later in the year to look back across recent programs to see how this discussion has evolved.
  • Remember YFE week earlier this month on aea365, where we celebrated Youth Focused Evaluation with one of our newest Topical Interest Groups? The YFE TIG has had one of the strongest showings ever for a brand new TIG with over 35 proposals in the pool!
  • It looks like there are over 1550 proposals in the peer-review pool, up just slightly from last year.

Thank you to everyone who took the time to develop a proposal. Your willingness to share your knowledge and expertise promises to make Evaluation 2012 an event to remember.

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I’m Susan Kistler, AEA’s Executive Director, and this week John Gargani reflected on what evaluation might look like in 10 years (go ahead, click away – it’s worth a read – but come back!).

Lessons [to be] Learned looking into a hazy crystal ball for what evaluation might look like 10 years hence, I wanted to build on John’s contributions.

Culturally Competent Evaluation Is the Norm: Living the lessons reflected in AEA’s Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation, evaluators will consistently incorporate considerations of culture and context into all evaluation in order to realize increased effectiveness and use of evaluation results. They will attend to issues of power, privilege, and access, whether stemming from historical inequities or newer divides brought upon by differential access to information and the capacity to use it.

Funders and the Public Expect Data-Informed Decision-Making: We’re seeing increased expectations of transparency from a technologically-adept generation of digital natives. Hand-in-hand, come accountability questions of how resources were allocated, money spent, and to what end. Evaluation must be a foundational facet of programming planning and execution in order to have ready answers.

Stakeholders Perform Most Analyses: Excel and other spreadsheet applications allow my local barber to work with data in ways once reserved for academics and analysts. More recently, Tableau and the like have put the power of data visualization in the hands of everyman. Over the next ten years, advances in analysis and visualization tools will continue this trend so that stakeholders can, and will expect to, perform a range of analyses and explorations once reserved for the specially trained.

Many Evaluators Focus on Developing Systems and Building Capacity: Increasingly, evaluators will serve a fundamental role as partners in program planning, creating systems that incorporate measurement and real-time reporting (as John suggested) to drive the data-informed culture. A growing subset of evaluators will focus on building the capacity of program staff to identify data needs, understand the available data, know their limitations in terms of both analysis and interpretation, and leverage external specialized evaluation assistance when needed.

Evaluators Debate (more) the Tradeoffs of Access and Insight: Ultimately, evaluation will be challenged in a tech-savvy era that places analytic power in the hands of constituencies with varying capacities to interpret accurately what they are seeing. The simplification required to render an analysis, may limit its value. The next big debate? How to balance access and insights – when are we willing to sacrifice the depth of analysis in order to increase access and use? Is such sacrifice even needed? What tools and strategies can create a both/and rather than an either/or situation?

What do you see happening in the next 10 years? Share here, or add to the discussion on John’s blog.

The above is my own opinion and does not necessarily represent that of AEA. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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