AEA365 | A Tip-a-Day by and for Evaluators

CAT | Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Issues

My name is Kari Greene, co-Chair of the LGBT Issues TIG, currently living in Sydney, Australia with a renewed sense of curiosity and excitement. Through my participation in the LGBT Issues TIG, I have had the great fortune to be involved with the Cultural Competence Statement Dissemination Workgroup. This group offers deep thinking, wise counsel and thought-provoking activities, benefiting the AEA membership as a whole in many explicit and hidden ways. And our TIG felt valued when we were sought out by the workgroup to ensure an LGBTQ perspective was included in the work.

As a queer-identified evaluator, I’ve struggled with what “diversity” and “cultural competency” really mean in my life and my work. How do we make these concepts meaningful for all of us, particularly in those spaces where we have privilege? And how do we use these concepts to shore ourselves up so we can speak (even if it’s with a wobbly voice) and use our experiences to engage actively in solutions?

Early in my work as *cough* “A Real Evaluator” (ahem), I was exposed to the importance of reflective practice, which has become a critical component for improving my evaluation practice and my way of moving through the world. I use reflective practice on formal and informal levels, exploring issues of identity, beliefs, and culture alongside “the data” I collect and generate throughout an evaluation. I have experienced and witnessed reflective practice facilitate critical learning for individuals, evaluation teams, and organizations as a whole. And as we respond to Michael Quinn Patton’s plea to position ourselves as “members of an international evaluation community,” reflective practice offers a framework for understanding our selves within that larger global community.

This isn’t easy work, but my-oh-my is it worth it. Within the LGBTQ communities there are so many perspectives, beliefs, and identities that we struggle to find a shared language…we can’t even find a shared acronym!! But the tools and concepts of reflective practice can allow us to share our culture across our diverse communities and with the international evaluation community as a whole.

Rad Resources:

Donald Schön (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action.

Fiona Gardner (2014) Being Critically Reflective: Engaging in Holistic Practice.

Marilyn Daudelin (1996) “Learning from experience through reflection” in Organizational Dynamics.

Preskill and Torres (1999) Evaluative Inquiry for Learning in Organizations.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating LGBT TIG Week with our colleagues in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Issues Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our LGBT TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

Welcome to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Evaluation Topical Interest Group (LGBT TIG) week on aea365! My name is Leia K. Cain, and I’m an instructor at the University of South Florida in the Educational Measurement and Research program. This week, I’m acting as the coordinator for the LGBT TIG’s blog posts.

One area of measurement in evaluation work that I feel really strongly about is the use of binaries. When you think about sexualities, do you only think of gay or straight? Homosexual or heterosexual? What if I told you that there were so many more categories in the in-between areas?

Lesson Learned: After reading Judith Butler’s work, I started working through the binaries under which my own thinking is structured. I still catch myself falling into binary thought categories sometimes, but I constantly work to “queer” my understanding of whatever the topic is at hand – I break apart my understanding and try to examine it.

In my particular line of work, I have examined the affect that outness has on the experiences and perceptions of LGBTQ individuals. However, I didn’t just ask participants if they were out or not – instead, I asked them to rate their outness on a scale from 1-6, where 1 meant “not at all out” and 6 meant “completely out.” This is similar to the Kinsey Scale; a scale created by Dr. Alfred Kinsey, who measured sexuality on a seven-point scale with categories ranging from 0-6.

I encourage thinking about how binaries could be stifling your evaluation and research work as well. After all, the world isn’t black or white, 0 or 1, or right and wrong. If you aren’t measuring the identities that fill the spaces in between, are you really reaching your entire audience?

Rad Resource: For more information on the Kinsey Scale, check out the Kinsey Institute’s webpage.

The American Evaluation Association is celebrating LGBT TIG Week with our colleagues in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Issues Topical Interest Group. The contributions all this week to aea365 come from our LGBT TIG members. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

My name is Leah Christina Neubauer. I am the President of the Chicagoland Evaluation Association and the Program Manager and an Instructor in the MPH Program at DePaul University.

Today, I am writing to extend three updates from the Practice committee of the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group. We are working on projects to disseminate the statement and integrate the contents into evaluation practice. The following updates are shared in the form of RAD RESOURCES. Enjoy!

Rad Resources:

  1. HIV/AIDS Focused with National Minority AIDS Council (NMAC): Task Force Members Cindy Crusto and Leah Neubauer are collaborating with Robin Kelly and NMAC in the development of culturally-responsive data plans for the local and statewide HIV/AIDS response.  NMAC is focused on building leadership and healthier communities to address HIV/AIDS across the US.  For more information, check out this link: http://nmac.org/resources/
  2. LGBT Health with George Washington University: Task Force Members Crusto and Neubauer are collaborating with Stephen Forsell to further develop culture and LGBTQI issues in evaluation. Forsell is currently leading a LGBT Health Certification program at GWU. For more information about this program, check out this link: http://programs.columbian.gwu.edu/lgbt/
  3. Future Scholarship Talk with the AEA GEDI Scholars: Task Force Members Katrina Bledsoe and Neubauer joined Stewart Donaldson and the Graduate Education Diversity Internship (GEDI) Scholars at the Inaugural Conference on Culturally Responsive Evaluation and Assessment (CREA) in Chicago, Illinois.  The discussion was quite lively and the time at the inaugural conference was well-spent.  For more information on GEDI or CREA, check out the hyperlinks.Clipped from http://education.illinois.edu/crea/conference 

This week, we’re diving into issues of Cultural Competence in Evaluation with AEA’s Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

 

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I’m Robert Hoke, independent evaluation consultant, and co-chair for the LGBT Issues TIG.  Today, I want to share some reflections from this AEA365 week.

Although it is becoming easier, it remains challenging to be different regarding sexual identity and gender issues.  The “It Gets Better” campaign grew out of the bullying of youth, and primarily the bullying of GLTQ youth who continue to struggle.  Suicide rates remain over 3 times that of heterosexual youth and individuals who come out as gay, lesbian or transgender continue to lose family and friends.

Hot Tips: Our intention was to take LGBT beyond the checkmarks of “what is your sex” and even past “what is your gender” questions.  We hoped to expand the interests of LGBT evaluation beyond those who identify as LGBTQQI and reveal:

  • As Joe Heimlich suggested, the complexity and integrity of the person who identifies as different from the heteronormative gender labels.
  • The wonderful link and information Terry Brown included on straight privilege on how pervasively our society remains heteronormed.
  • Inclusive evaluation around gender begins with incorporating opportunities to feel included in the evaluation, as shared by Kari Greene and Emily Greytak.
  • Efrain Gutierrez’ advice that culturally competent evaluations require understanding how gender identity is woven through all life components of an individual.
  • That true cultural competence means moving beyond one’s comfort zone and challenging the system.  David Fetterman shared just a hint of what he and his students discovered when they asked a different question from the norm.

With the increased acceptance of gays and lesbians, and emergence of a growing transgender awareness movement, the evaluation field is at a decision point—does the field as a whole push society and become truly inclusive in our work, or do we wait for society to change and follow?  I believe the cultural competency statement gives a clear indication that honoring all respondents is part of our profession.

The LGBT TIG issues a challenge for all evaluators this year:  consider how you could increase and apply cultural competence inclusive of LGBTQQI populations.  Please share your story at AEA 2013 by allowing the LGBT TIG to sponsor or co-sponsor your presentation.

Rad Resources:  The LGBT TIG leadership is available as sounding board to help increase the sensitivity of your evaluation tools to LGBT cultures or suggest others who are knowledgeable about how LGBT issues may be different in your topic area.

Check out these AEA resources:

*AEA members-only content

aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators. We’re celebrating LGBT Evaluation week with our colleagues in AEA’s LGBT Topical Interest Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. 

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My name is David Fetterman.  I’m President & CEO of Fetterman & Associates, an international evaluation consulting firm (with 25 years experience at Stanford University) and past-president of the American Evaluation Association (AEA).  I am probably best known for empowerment evaluation work (helping people learn how to evaluate their own programs).  For examples see our blog and an article about empowerment evaluation in the School of Medicine at Stanford University in Academic Medicine, and the book Empowerment Evaluation in the Digital Villages:  Hewlett-Packard’s $15 Million Race Toward Social Justice, Stanford University Press

LGBT-Related Survey

One of my recent evaluations, conducted with my  Stanford School of Medicine students, focused on LGBT curricular training in medical schools throughout the U.S. and Canada.  The results – a median reported time of 5 hours of LGBT-related content in the entire curriculum – were published in this article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). It received considerable attention in the press, in part because it is as much a human rights issue as a medical education issue. I’ll share a few tips and tricks that emerged from conducting and publishing this study.

Hot Tip:  We used an online survey program to ask Deans of Schools of Medicine to evaluate their institutions’ level of coverage of 16 LGBT related topics.  Online survey tools, such as SurveyMonkey, save time and money and sort data almost instantaneously.  Surveying Deans automatically enhances the credibility of findings (especially if findings suggest minimal coverage of the material, as in our case).

Reporting survey findings was as much a social responsibility as a scholarly one.  See Anne Dohrenwend’s challenge to speak out about gay rights in Academic Medicine.

Cool Trick: Videoconferencing programs, including Skype, ooVoo, and Google Hangouts are invaluable tools to facilitate communication with team members at remote sites.  Most team members were located across the country, completing residency requirements.  Videoconferencing allowed us to function remotely and inexpensively.

Rad Resource: The Association of American Medical Colleges maintains a curriculum management and Information (CurrMIT) database that helps you determine the coverage of specific topics in medical schools. This database was particularly useful as a form of triangulation when our reporting format – “reported hours of instruction” – was questioned in a draft of our article.

Recommended LGBT cultural competence resources:

Fenway Health

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

Lesson Learned:  Be prepared for significant opposition to unpopular or controversial findings.  Be prepared to speak with the press.  Highlight key findings and recommendations simply and concisely and be prepared to see how journalists use the information (see example of highlighted findings in New York Times.)  Appreciate your team and enjoy the media blitz for as long as it lasts.

aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators. We’re celebrating LGBT Evaluation week with our colleagues in AEA’s LGBT Topical Interest Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. 

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I am Efrain Gutierrez and I work for FSG, a nonprofit consulting firm that helps foundations, nonprofits and corporations increase their social impact. Last year a friend started collaborating as an evaluator for a program that works with LGBTQ youth. Before starting his evaluation he wanted to talk about cultural competency when working with the LGBTQ community. As I prepared for the meeting, I reflected on the lessons that I think would be most useful for evaluators working with this community:                    

Lessons Learned: 1. A person’s sexuality is not the only thing affecting their life. The LGBTQ community replicates the patterns of sexism, racism, and classism prevalent in our society. Problems affecting women and other underrepresented groups are also affecting members of the community. Being queer creates a “multiplier effect,” making it even more challenging for queers to overcome social barriers, stay healthy, get an education, make a decent wage, etc. A clear example of this “multiplier effect” is in the study All Children Matter: How Legal and Social Inequalities Hurt LGBT Families . The document shows how children across races are more likely to live in poverty if they live with a same sex couple compared to those living in different sex couples (see graph from the report below).  As evaluators it is important to account for this “multiplier effect” and be open and prepared to discuss race, sexism, class, and other social issues when engaging with LGBTQ folks.

gut

2. Account for a diversity of voices in your evaluation; tapping only into the most visible LGBTQ members might not give you the diversity needed. Since the LGBTQ movement often reproduces patterns of racial and gender separation prevalent in our society, most intellectual and political circles in the community remain predominantly cis-gender, male, and white. As you determine who to include in your evaluation look for a representative set of members of the LGBTQ community to provide a full picture of the issues affecting the recipients of the programs you are evaluating.

3.  Don’t take for granted that you understand the political context for LGBTQ rights just by reading the headlines. Marriage equality is important, but there is a wide range of challenges affecting the community popular narrative is not focusing on: discrimination against transsexuals, violence against queers living in rural areas, and inadequate access to resources for queers with special needs, to name just a few of the issues evaluators should consider as they work with the LGBTQ community.

Rad Resources:

A Fragile Union  – article on gay politics

Allan Bérubé’s work

aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators. We’re celebrating LGBT Evaluation week with our colleagues in AEA’s LGBT Topical Interest Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. 

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This is Kari Greene with Program Design & Evaluation Services in Oregon, and Emily Greytak with GLSEN, the Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network in New York. We are with the American Evaluation Association’s (AEA) LGBT Issues Topical Interest Group (TIG) and are heartened to see AEA members building cultural competency around transgender-inclusivity.

Have you ever thought about what you’re really asking with “What is your gender: Male or Female?” Do you want to know how people identify to others? How others see them? What sex they were assigned at birth? This ubiquitous question and standard response options deserve more thought…

Hot Tips:

Should I ask transgender identity? Sex at birth? Current gender?

Start with asking what you really need to know and why. For example, a health program offering cancer screenings may need to know if male-identified clients have anatomy/physiology typically associated with females, so they may need breast or cervical cancer screenings. Meanwhile, a housing program might only need to assess if the outcomes are different between transgender and non-trans clients.

I can’t ask people if they’re transgender – they’ll be offended!

Including trans-inclusive items appears to be innocuous for adults and youth. Oregon tested two transgender items in the statewide health survey and respondents 18 to 80 answered easily. In fact, income and weight questions have far higher refusal rates.

I put “Transgender” on my client form but a transgender client checked the “Female” box – what did I do wrong?

Nothing! Some transgender people may identify as both female or male and transgender, so you may want a “check all that apply” gender item. Others may only identify as male or female, so you could also add a question asking sex assigned at birth. Some people don’t identify as male, female or transgender so an open option is helpful.

There are so few transgender people – why bother since I can’t use them in subgroup analysis of male/female participants?

Remember the program is already serving transgender people – they just aren’t counted. Create an analytic plan that describes all participants, and combines groups reliably and respectfully. Excluding transgender respondents sends the message that the evaluation or program is not relevant or welcoming to transgender people.

Any sample questions you suggest?

Yes, but it depends on what you need to know. There is no single “best item” for assessing transgender respondents but these resources can help!

Rad Resources:

Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey

Assessing Transgender Status in Surveys of Adolescents: A GLSEN Research Brief Services & Advocacy for GLBT Elders

Eval12 Session 654: Don’t Ask, Can’t Report  materials in the AEA public eLibrary

aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators. We’re celebrating LGBT Evaluation week with our colleagues in AEA’s LGBT Topical Interest Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. 

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My name is Terry L. Brown, and I am a doctoral candidate in the College of Education at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois. Transgressing gender is the practice of blurring socio-constructed gender boundaries as a strategic response to heteronormative practice. Heteronormative, also referred to as gender normative, practice seeks efficiencies through standardizing and regulating sameness while simultaneously diminishing difference.  Disruptions to heteronormative cultural ways offer opportunities to re-think traditional policy and programmatic response structures and frameworks. Individuals across the gender spectrum often drive change laterally, across social, political, technological, legal and economic systems, in such a way that leads to the expansion of opportunities for those traditionally excluded.

Rad Resources – The Basics: Gender 101  (Some starting points)

Hot Tip 1:  Binary categories have long exceeded their usefulness in collecting data on sexual orientation and gender. To this end,

a)  Likert-type scales are useful for capturing nuanced data when gender positionalities are often situational and can even change dynamically from questions to question.

b)  Allow for multiple items to be selected.

c)  Employ case study to capture transformational outcomes for those who identify as LGBT.

Hot Tip 2:  Gender assumptions can be found embedded among the nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs we use in writing, resulting in participants hitting exit before survey completion.

a)  Make sure to go outside traditional feedback loops, to review any evaluation materials before implementation.

b)  Challenge traditional academic models of “best practice” for processes that reinforce gender preferences.

c)  Use inclusive language: “we” as opposed to he/she when preparing reports.

d)  Examine metaphors and other linguistic devices for reproducing gender- normative patterns.

Hot Tip 3:  Gender assumptions are implicit understandings which often take the form of stereotypes around masculinity and femininity. Be generous in your use of comment boxes, even in demographics items, as a method for allowing:

a)  Respondents to provide feedback on word choice, or to point out embedded assumptions;

b)  To reduce conceptual blind spots and emerge unknown positionalities;

c)  To break the urge of evaluators to neatly label and categorize; and

d)  To bring out rich data and capture human diversity.

Lessons Learned – Some common heteronormative assumptions:

  • Lesbians dislike men
  • All trans-folk consider themselves part of the LGBT community
  • Marriage = 1 man and 1 woman
  • A stay at home caregiver  = a woman
  • LGBT are non-spiritual and/or non-religious
  • All women, lesbian or otherwise, want to have children
  • Men are born leaders
  • People who identify as LGBT are making a choice
  • Men who identify as gay are effeminate

Rad Resources:  Explore: Heterosexuality Questionnaire;  Straight Privilege

aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators. We’re celebrating LGBT Evaluation week with our colleagues in AEA’s LGBT Topical Interest Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. 

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Welcome to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Evaluation Topical Interest Group (LGBT TIG) week on aea365! My name is Joe E. Heimlich. I’m a professor with Ohio State University Extension where I work with informal learning institutions and organizations to build capacity. This week, I’m in my role as coordinator for the LBGT TIG’s blog week.

During the American Evaluation Association annual conference, through discussions in sessions and at the TIG meeting, the question kept arising: What does it mean to be culturally competent as the concept relates to gay, lesbian and transgender issues? We realize that for many, the assumption is that competence means asking if someone is LGBT and, if they’re really cutting edge, including QQI (queer, questioning, and intersex). But for those who are represented by any of these letters of gender identity and beyond, the hetero-normative assumptions in what is asked and how it is asked go far beyond the label used.

This week, the LBGT TIG is pleased to host a week of blogs meant to challenge some of the underlying assumptions of cultural competence and those who identify as gender other.

What does this mean? Think how challenging it is to answer a question about head of household when the underlying assumption is heteronormative households. Consider the frustration when trying to fill in the box about “family composition” when the boxes don’t work (Yes I have a daughter. No I’m not her father biologically or legally.). The list goes on of ways in which the questions asked are suggesting the respondent does not fit.

This week, we’ll take a few steps toward cultural competency around LGBTQQI. First, Terry Brown will challenge us about the construct of gender and identity. Kari Geene and Emily Greytak are next with their important work around the difficulty of asking about transgender identity. Efrain posts his blog which provides some thought-provoking insights into how gender identity informs all aspects of an individual’s life. David Fetterman then gives us insight into the amazing work he and his team have been doing in applying LGBT awareness into medical education. Finally, Robert Hoke wraps up the week with a charge to the field.

Our goal this week is to begin moving gender in evaluation from being about putting people in boxes, to an understanding that gender identity IS identity. To understand the individual, we must include a central part of who they are in our work.

Hot Tip: There is no one “gay” or “lesbian” or LGBT culture. There is tremendous diversity within gender groupings, and understanding that a study of LGBTQQI requires more than sex and sexual orientation. Queer theory provides an entry for understanding the complexity that is queer theory and a good place for an introduction is Sex, Gender and Development: Challenging Heteronormativity (free for download).

Rad Resource – Gender Spectrum: A great introductory site on gender.

aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators. We’re celebrating LGBT Evaluation week with our colleagues in AEA’s LGBT Topical Interest Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice.

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My name is Cindy Crusto, and I am an associate professor at Yale University School of Medicine and chair of the AEA Public Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group. Today, I summarize and reflect on the Hindsight is 20/20: Reflecting on Missed Opportunities, Missteps, and Successes in Attending to Culture and Context in Evaluation Practice Think Tank, an Evaluation 2012 session organized by our working group.

Arthur Hernandez, Kari Greene, and HazelSymonette illustrated missed opportunities and successes in addressing and attending to culture/context in evaluations. This entry focuses on Kari Greene’s fictitious case study with a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ) health coalition conducting a needs assessment. The coalition quickly realized there was not one “LGBTQ community” but instead many different communities. The coalition needed to identify who they wanted to serve –identity-based communities only or include individuals not identifying as LGBTQ but might have LGBTQ health needs (e.g. a man born a woman but transitioned years ago and does not identify as transgender, however, has trans-related health needs)? Would the group address LGBTQ issues statewide, including rural issues and the “gay ghetto” of urban centers? Would they gather information across the lifespan? Finally, given the diversity of individual member’s gender identity, meetings began with individuals indicating their preferred gender pronouns.

Lessons Learned: The case study highlighted several lessons:

  • We have to identify within group diversity
    • cultural similarity of the evaluator and the evaluands does not guarantee awareness of within group diversity;
    • diversity in self-definition/self-identification exists; evaluators may need to bridge generational, regional, and/or other gaps to develop within group understanding, tolerance, acceptance, and/or consensus;
    • We should move away from a cultural competence “checklist mentality” and toward cultural humility, anongoing process of self-reflection and self-critique
      • cultural competence checklists do not exist; each evaluation is different and requires attention to different cultural/contextual issues;
      • yesterday’s culturally competent evaluator is tomorrow’s incompetent evaluator; we must remain organic, dynamic, and ever-morphing, open, responsive, and hold to a reflective beginner stance;
      • We have to attend to issues of power and bias.

The Think Tank’s discussant, Donna Mertens, posed questions that can be used in your work:

  1. What dimensions of diversity are relevant in the communities in which you work?
  2. How do you identify relevant dimensions of diversity in your evaluations?
  3. What power issues might arise between subgroups within the evaluation context? How would you address them?

Rad Resources

This week, we’re diving into issues of Cultural Competence in Evaluation with AEA’s Statement on Cultural Competence in Evaluation Dissemination Working Group. Do you have questions, concerns, kudos, or content to extend this aea365 contribution? Please add them in the comments section for this post on the aea365 webpage so that we may enrich our community of practice. Would you like to submit an aea365 Tip? Please send a note of interest to aea365@eval.org. aea365 is sponsored by the American Evaluation Association and provides a Tip-a-Day by and for evaluators.

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